Welcome to the Wealth of the Rainforest Pharmacy to the World
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Amazon A-V Capsules
Leslie Taylor's formula of 9 rainforest plants which have been independently documented
around the world with antiviral actions. There are at least 19 different plant chemicals in this
combination of plants which have been documented with the ability to kill various viruses,
including hepatitis, herpes, HIV, and Epstein-barr (mononucleosis) viruses, among others.
For common upper respiratory viruses like the common cold and flu, see Amazon C-F instead
as it contains plants which has actions against those types of viruses with other actions to help
treat the symptoms of a cold and flu.
Raintree Nutrition, Leslie Taylor, and this website no longer sell any herbal supplements. This
same formula is available from other companies who chose to manufacture it under their labels
after Leslie Taylor published all of her previously proprietary formulas on this website. See the
product search links in the left margin to find these available products or make the formula
yourself using the information provided below. There is also a list of manufacturers and retailers selling rainforest herbal supplements and plants shown on the main Rainforest Products Page.
Ingredients: A blend of bitter melon, clavillia, mullaca, jergon sacha, carqueja, amargo, chanca
piedra, mutamba, and anamu. To prepare this natural remedy use one equal part of each plant
listed. To make a small amount, "1 part" could be one tablespoon (you'd have 9 tablespoons of
the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts, use "1 part" as one ounce or one cup or one
pound. Combine all the herbs together well. The herbal mixture can then be stuffed into
capsules or brewed into tea, or stirred into juice or other liquid. This formula can also be
prepared into a standard tincture. For instructions on preparing herbal remedies and tinctures,
see this link. For more complete information on these unique rainforest plant ingredients,
please follow the links provided below to the Tropical Plant Database to each plant ingredient's
Suggested Use: Take 2 grams / 3 capsules three times daily or ½ teaspoon of a tincture three
Contraindications: Not to be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.
Drug Interactions: None reported.
Other Practitioner Observations: Several ingredients in this formula have demonstrated
antibacterial actions which might reduce friendly bacteria in the stomach and intestines.
Supplementing the diet with probiotics and digestive enzymes is advisable if this formula is
used for longer than 30 days. See the Amazon A-F formula to address candida if taking this
formula for longer than 30 days.
This formula has not been the subject of any clinical research. Available third-party
documentation and research on each ingredient in this formula can be found in the online
Tropical Plant Database or on PubMed. A partial listing of third-party published research on
each of these plant ingredients is shown below.
Bitter melon contain a group of plant chemicals call ribosome inactivating proteins (RIP).
These plant chemicals are protein synthesis inhibitors that are toxic to viral cells. Bitter
melon also has a unique protein that has been extracted and patented and named
MAP30. MAP30 is an antiviral plant protein that is capable of acting against multiple
stages of the viral life cycle, on acute infection as well as replication in chronically
infected cells of multiple types of viruses, including HIV. Offor, U., et al. "Nephrotoxicity and highly active antiretroviral therapy: Mitigating action of
Momordica charantia." Toxicol Rep. 2018 Sep 20; 5: 1153-1160.
Sun, W., et al. "Chemosynthesis and characterization of site-specific N-terminally PEGylated
Alpha-momorcharin as a potential agent." Sci. Rep. 2018 Dec 7; 8(1): 17729.
Yang, T., et al. "Alpha-momorcharin enhances tobacco mosaic virus resistance in tobacco(NN)
by manipulating jasmonic acid-salicylic acid crosstalk." J. Plant Physiol. 2018 Apr; 223:
Chang, C., et al. "Novel purification method and antibiotic activity of recombinant Momordica
charantia MAP30." Biotech. 2017 May; 7(1): 3.
Moghadam, A., et al. "Expression of a recombinant anti-HIV and anti-tumor protein, MAP30, in
Nicotiana tobacum hairy roots: a pH-stable and thermophilic antimicrobial protein." PLoS One.
2016 Jul; 11(7): e0159653.
Yaldız, G., et al. "Antimicrobial activity and agricultural properties of bitter melon (Momordica
charantia L.) grown in northern parts of Turkey: a case study for adaptation." Nat. Prod. Res.
2015; 29(6) :543-5.
Caizhen, G., et al. "Zirconium phosphatidylcholine-based nanocapsules as an in vivo
degradable drug delivery system of MAP30, a Momordica anti-HIV protein." Int. J. Pharm. 2015
Apr; 483(1-2): 188-99.
Rakholiya, K., et al. "Comparative study of hydroalcoholic extracts of Momordica charantia L.
against foodborne pathogens." Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 2014 Mar; 76(2): 148-56.
Rothan, H., et al. "Fusion of protegrin-1 and plectasin to MAP30 shows significant inhibition
activity against dengue virus replication." PLoS One. 2014 Apr; 9(4): e94561.
Pongthanapisith, V., et al. "Antiviral protein of Momordica charantia L. inhibits different
subtypes of influenza A." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013; 2013: 729081.
Zhu, F., et al. "Alpha-momorcharin, a RIP produced by bitter melon, enhances defense
response in tobacco plants against diverse plant viruses and shows antifungal activity in vitro."
Planta. 2013 Jan; 237(1): 77-88.
Waiyaput, W., et al. "Inhibitory effects of crude extracts from some edible Thai plants against
replication of hepatitis B virus and human liver cancer cells." BMC Complement. Altern. Med.
2012 Dec; 12:246.
Feng, E., et al. "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a cornucopia of health: a review of its
credited antidiabetic, anti-HIV, and antitumor properties." Curr. Mol. Med. 2011 Jul; 11(5):
Puri, M., et al. "Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) from Momordica charantia for anti-viral
therapy." Curr. Mol. Med. 2009 Dec; 9(9): 1080-94.
Braca, A., et al. "Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Momordica charantia seed
essential oil." Fitoterapia. 2008; 79(2): 123-5.
Fan, J., et al. "Inhibition on Hepatitis B virus in vitro of recombinant MAP30 from bitter melon."
Mol. Biol. Rep. 2009; 36(2): 381-8.
Jiratchariyakul, W., et al. "HIV inhibitor from Thai bitter gourd." Planta Med. 2001 Jun; 67(4):
Wang, Y., et al. "Anti-HIV and anti-tumor protein MAP30, a 30 kDa single-strand type-I RIP,
shares similar secondary structure and beta-sheet topology with the A chain of ricin, a type-II
RIP." Protein Sci. 2000 Jan; 9(1): 138-44.
Zheng, Y., et al. "Alpha-momorcharin inhibits HIV-1 replication in acutely but not chronically
infected T-lymphocytes." Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1999; 20(3): 239-43.
Bourinbaiar, A., et al. "The activity of plant-derived antiretroviral proteins MAP30 and GAP31
against Herpes simplex virus in vitro." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1996; 219(3): 923–29.
Lee-Huang, S., et al. "Inhibition of the integrase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1
by anti-HIV plant proteins MAP30 and GAP31." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1995; 92(19): 8818–22.
Dong, T., et al. "Ribosome inactivating protein-like activity in seeds of diverse Cucurbitaceae
plants." Indian J. Exp. Biol. 1993; 25(3): 415–19.
Zhang, Q. "Preliminary report on the use of Momordica charantia extract by HIV patients." J.
Naturopath. Med. 1992; 3: 65–9.
Huang, T., et al. "Studies on antiviral activity of the extract of Momordica charantia and its
active principle." Virologica. 1990; 5(4): 367–73.
Lee-Huang, S. "MAP 30: A new inhibitor of HIV-1 infection and replication." FEBS Lett. 1990;
Takemoto, D. "Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor with anti-viral activity from
the bitter melon." Prep. Biochem. 1983; 13(4): 371–93.
Clavillia is also a good source of ribosome inactivating proteins (RIP) and Map30 plant
chemicals that are found in bitter melon, including several novel ones. These powerful
plant chemicals are the subject of a great deal of research against various viruses,
including HIV, and most recently cancer. More of these types of studies can be found in
the plant database file in the Tropical Plant Database. Gogoi, J., et al. "Isolation and characterization of bioactive components from Mirabilis
jalapa L. radix." J. Tradit. Complement. Med. 2015 Jan; 6(1): 41-7.
Bolognesi, A. et al. "Ribosome-inactivating and adenine polynucleotide glycosylase activities in
Mirabilis jalapa L. tissues." J. Biol. Chem. 2002; 277(16) 13709-16.
Yang, S. W., et al. "Three new phenolic compounds from a manipulated plant cell culture,
Mirabilis jalapa." J. Nat. Prod. 2001; 64(3): 313-17.
Vivanco, J., et al. "Characterization of two novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins from the
storage roots of the Andean crop Mirabilis expansa." Plant Physiol. 1999; 119(4): 1447-56.
Dimayuga, R., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants from Baja California Sur
(Mexico)." Pharmaceutical Biol. 1998; 36(1): 33-43.
De Bolle, M., et al. "Antimicrobial peptides from Mirabilis jalapa and Amarantus caudatus:
expression, processing, localization and biological activity in transgenic tobacco." Plant Mol.
Biol. 1996; 31(5): 993-1008.
Kataoka, J., et al. "Adenine depurination and inactivation of plant ribosomes by an antiviral
protein of Mirabilis jalapa (MAP)." Plant Mol. Biol. 1992; 20(6): 111-19.
Wong, R., et al. "Characterization of Mirabilis antiviral protein—a ribosome inactivating protein
from Mirabilis jalapa L." Biochem. Int. 1992; 28(4): 585-93.
Cammue, B., et al. "Isolation and characterization of a novel class of plant antimicrobial
peptides from Mirabilis jalapa L. seeds." J. Biol. Chem. 1992; 267(4): 2228-33.
Caceres, A., et al. "Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for
the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1987; 20(3): 223-37.
Mullaca has been reported to have antiviral actions against HIV, Herpes simplex, polio
and measles viruses.
Ramanpreet, B., et al. "Phytochemical analysis of two cytotypes (2x and 4x) of Physalis angulata an important medicinal plant, collected from Rajasthan." Biochem. Mol. Bio. J. 2017; 3(15): 1-7.
Osho, A., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Physalis angulata. L." Afr. J. Tradit.
Complement. Altern. Med. 2010; 7(4): 303-6.
Silva, M., et al. "Studies on antimicrobial activity, in vitro, of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae)
fraction and physalin B bringing out the importance of assay determination." Mem. Inst.
Oswaldo Cruz. 2005 Nov; 100(7): 779-82.
Hussain, H., et al. "Plants in Kano ethnomedicine; screening for antimicrobial activity and
alkaloids." Int. J. Pharmacol. 1991; 29(1): 51-56.
Otake, T., et al. "Screening of Indonesian plant extracts for anti-Human Immunodeficiency
Virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) Activity." Phytother. Res. 1995; 9(1): 6-10.
Kurokawa, M., et al. "Antiviral traditional medicines against Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1), polio
virus, and measles virus in vitro and their therapeutic efficacies for HSV-1 infection in mice."
Antiviral Res. 1993; 22(2/3): 175-88.
Kusumoto, I., et al. "Screening of some Indonesian medicinal plants for inhibitory effects on
HIV-1 protease." Shoyakugaku Zasshi 1992; 46(2): 190-93.
Jergon sacha is a proven snake bite remedy in the Amazon where it grows and has
shown to neutralize the harmful proteases in snake venom. These same protease
inhibitor actions can also apply to inhibiting the proteases in viral cells they use to
replicate. Caro, D., et al. "Protective effect of Dracontium dubium against Bothrops asper venom."
Biomed. Pharmacother. 2017 May; 89: 1105-1114.
Lock, O., et al. "Bioactive compounds from plants used in Peruvian traditional medicine." Nat.
Prod. Commun. 2016 Mar; 11(3): 315-37.
Abeykoon G., et al. "Anti-Diols from α-oxyaldehydes: synthesis and stereochemical assignment
of oxylipins from Dracontium loretense." Org. Lett. 2014 Jun; 16(12): 3248-51
Napolitano, A., et al. "Qualitative on-line profiling of ceramides and cerebrosides by high
performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap tandem mass
spectrometry: the case of Dracontium loretense." J. Pharm. Biomed, Anal. 2011 Apr 28; 55(1):
Lovera, A., et al. ["Neutralizing effect of the aqueous extract of Dracontium loretense (JERGÓN
SACHA) on the lethal activity of Bothrops atrox venom."] Spanish. Rev. Perú. Med. Exp. Salud
Publica. 2006 Jul; 23(3): 177-181.
Nunez, V., et al. "Neutralization of the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of
Bothrops asper venom by extracts of plants used by healers in Colombia." Braz. J. Med. Biol.
Res. 2004; 37(7): 969-77.
Otero, R., et al. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the Northwest region of Colombia: Part II:
neutralization of lethal and enzymatic effects of Bothrops atrox venom." J. Ethnopharmacol.
2000 Aug; 71(3): 505-11.
Carqueja contains a group of flavonoid chemicals with documented antiviral actions.
Some of these chemicals have been synthesized by researchers and they are attempting
to create derivatives or novel new chemicals that can be patented as new antiviral drugs
from the natural ones found in carqueja. Sadati, S., et al. "Docking study of flavonoid derivatives as potent inhibitors of influenza H1N1
virus neuraminidase." Biomed. Rep. 2019 Jan; 10(1): 33-38.
da Silva, A., et al. "Acute toxicity and antimicrobial activity of leaf tincture Baccharis trimera
(Less). Biomed J. 2018 Jun; 41(3): 194-201.
Visintini, M., et al. "In vitro antiviral activity of plant extracts from Asteraceae medicinal plants."
Virol. J. 2013 Jul; 10: 245.
Samy, R., et al. "Therapeutic potential of plants as anti-microbials for drug discovery." Evid.
Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2010 September; 7(3): 283-294
Morales, G., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of three Baccharis species used in the traditional
medicine of Northern Chile." Molecules. 2008; 13(4): 790-4.
Sanchez Palomino, S., et al. "Screening of South American plants against human
immunodeficiency virus: preliminary fractionation of aqueous extract from Baccharis trinervis."
Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2002; 25(9): 1147-50.
Abad, M., et al. "Antiviral activity of Bolivian plant extracts." Gen. Pharmacol. 1999; 32(4):
Abad, M., et al. "Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants." Phytother. Res.
1999 Mar; 13(2): 142-6.
Robinson, W., et al. "Inhibitors of HIV-1 replication that inhibit HIV Integrase." Proc. Natl. Acad.
Sci. 1996; 93(13): 6326-31.
Abdel-Malek, S., et al. "Drug leads from the Kallawaya herbalists of Bolivia. 1. Background,
rationale, protocol and anti-HIV activity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 50(3): 157-66.
Two of amargo's active chemicals named glaucarubolone and simalikalactone D have
been attributed to amargo’s strong antiviral activity observed in studies against Herpes
simplex, HIV, Semliki forest, Coxsackie, Vesicular stomatitis, and feline and human
lentiviruses. Apers, S., et al. "Antiviral activity of simalikalactone D, a quassinoid from Quassia africana."
Planta Med. 2002; 25(9): 1151-55.
Xu, Z., et al. "Anti-HIV agents 45(1) and antitumor agents 205. (2) Two new sesquiterpenes,
leitneridanins A and B, and the cytotoxic and anti-HIV principles from Leitneria floridana." J.
Nat. Prod. 2000; 63(12): 1712-15.
Xu Z, et. al. "Anti-HIV agents 45(1) and antitumor agents 205.(2) two new sesquiterpenes,
leitneridanins A and B, and the cytotoxic and anti-HIV principles from Leitneria floridana." J.
Nat. Prod. 2000 Dec; 63(12): 1712-5.
Paulik, M., et al. "Drug-antibody conjugates with anti-HIV activity." Biochem Pharmacol. 1999
Dec; 58(11): 1781-90.
Morre, D., et al. "Effect of the quassinoids glaucarubolone and simalikalactone D on growth of
cells permanently infected with feline and human immunodeficiency viruses and on viral
infections." Life Sci. 1998; 62(3): 213-9.
Abdel-Malek, S., et al. "Drug leads from the Kallawaya herbalists of Bolivia. 1. Background,
rationale, protocol and anti-HIV activity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 50: 157-66.
Chanca piedra and at least five of its active plant chemicals have been reported in
human, animal and/or test tube studies to have potent anti-viral actions. Baiguera, C., et al. "Phyllanthus niruri versus placebo for chronic hepatitis B virus infection: A
randomized controlled trial." Complement Med Res. 2018; 25(6): 376-382.
Reddy, B., et al. "A natural small molecule inhibitor corilagin blocks HCV replication and
modulates oxidative stress to reduce liver damage." Antiviral Res. 2018 Feb; 150: 47-59.
Mohan, M., et al. "Molecular docking studies of phytochemicals from Phyllanthus niruri against
Hepatitis B DNA polymerase." Bioinformation. 2015 Sep 30; 11(9): 426-31.
Bhat, S., et al. "Preclinical screening of Phyllanthus amarus ethanolic extract for its analgesic
and antimicrobial activity." Pharmacognosy Res. 2014 Oct-Dec; 7(4): 378-84.
Liu, S., et al. "In vitro and in vivo anti-hepatitis B virus activities of the lignan nirtetralin B
isolated from Phyllanthus niruri L." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Nov 18; 157: 62-8.
Liu, S., et al. "In vitro and in vivo anti-hepatitis B virus activities of the lignan niranthin isolated
from Phyllanthus niruri L." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Sep 11; 155(2): 1061-7.
Qi, F., et al. "Traditional Chinese medicine and related active compounds: a review of their role
on hepatitis B virus infection." Drug Discov. Ther. 2013 Dec; 7(6): 212-24.
Faral-Tello, P., et al. "Cytotoxic, virucidal, and antiviral activity of South American plant and
algae extracts." Scientific World Journal. 2012; 2012: 174837
Wei, W., et al. "Lignans with anti-hepatitis B virus activities from Phyllanthus niruri L." Phytother
Res. 2012 Jul; 26(7): 964-8.
Ravikumar, Y., et al. "Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by herbal extract: Phyllanthus
amarus as potent natural source." Virus Res. 2011 Jun; 158(1-2): 89-97.
Cheng, H., et al. "Excoecarianin, isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria Linnea, inhibits Herpes
simplex virus type 2 infection through inactivation of viral particles." Evid. Based Complement.
Alternat. Med. 2011; 2011: 259103.
Dirjomuljono, M., et al. "Symptomatic treatment of acute tonsillo-pharyngitis patients with a
combination of Nigella sativa and Phyllanthus niruri extract." Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2008;
Yang, C., et al. "The in vitro activity of geraniin and 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose
isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria against Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 infection." J.
Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Apr; 110(3): 555-8.
Bagalkotkar, G., et al. "Phytochemicals from Phyllanthus niruri Linn. and their pharmacological
properties: a review." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2006 Dec; 58(12): 1559-70.
Naik, A., et al. "Effects of alkaloidal extract of Phyllanthus niruri on HIV replication." Indian J.
Med. Sci. 2003 Sep; 57(9): 387-93.
Huang, R. L., et al. "Screening of 25 compounds isolated from Phyllanthus species for anti-human hepatitis B virus in vitro." Phytother. Res. 2003; 17(5): 449-53.
Liu, J., et al. "Genus Phyllanthus for chronic Hepatitis B virus infection: A systematic review."
Viral Hepat. 2001; 8(5): 358-66.
Xin-Hua, W., et al. "A comparative study of Phyllanthus amarus compound and interferon in the
treatment of chronic viral Hepatitis B." Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 2001; 32(1):
Wang, M., et al. "Herbs of the genus Phyllanthus in the treatment of chronic Hepatitis B:
Observation with three preparations from different geographic sites." J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1995;
Wang, M., et al. "Observations of the efficacy of Phyllanthus spp. in treating patients with
chronic Hepatitis B." 1994; 19(12): 750-52.
Thyagarajan, S., et al. "Effect of Phyllanthus amarus on chronic carriers of Hepatitis B virus."
Lancet 1988; 2(8614): 764-66.
Venkateswaran, P., et al. "Effects of an extract from Phyllanthus niruri on Hepatitis B and wood
chuck hepatitis viruses: in vitro and in vivo studies." Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 1987; 84(1): 274-78.
Bhumyamalaki, S., et al. "Phyllanthus niruri and jaundice in children." J. Natl. Integ. Med. Ass.
1983; 25(8): 269-72.
Thyagarajan, S., et al. "In vitro inactivation of HBsAG by Eclipta alba (Hassk.) and Phyllanthus
niruri (Linn.)." Indian J. Med. Res. 1982; 76s: 124-30.
Notka, F., et al. "Concerted inhibitory activities of Phyllanthus amarus on HIV replication in vitro
and ex vivo." Antiviral Res. 2004 Nov; 64(2): 93-102.
Notka, F., et al. "Inhibition of wild-type human immunodeficiency virus and reverse transcriptase
inhibitor-resistant variants by Phyllanthus amarus." Antiviral Res. 2003 Apr; 58(2): 175-186.
Qian-Cutrone, J. "Niruriside, a new HIV REV/RRE binding inhibitor from Phyllanthus niruri." J.
Nat. Prod. 1996; 59(2): 196-99.
Ogata, T., et al. "HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor from Phyllanthus niruri." AIDS Res. Hum.
Retroviruses 1992; 8(11): 1937-44.
Mutamba is a significant source of a plant chemical called procyanidin B2 which has
shown in various studies to have strong antiviral actions. This antioxidant plant
chemical can be found in lower amounts in green tea leaves and apples. Mutamba also
contains another antioxidant chemical named epicatechin which is also antiviral. These
two plant chemicals along with several others are tannin chemicals in the bark and
leaves of this rainforest tree. Mutamba contains many tannin chemicals. There is
currently a Brazilian physician that is treating HIV patients with a tannin rich extract of
mutamba with reported good results who reports the extract has reverse transcriptase
inhibition actions. Gouveia, P. "Therapeutic use of Guazulma ulmifolia Lam extract of Northern Brazil." Microbio.
Infect. Dis. 2018; 2(3) 1-8.
Gouveia, P. "The efficiency of the tannin extracted from the Guazuma ulmifolia in the reverse
transcriptase inhibition of the HIV virus." J. AIDS Clin. Res. 2018 Aug. 6th World Congress on
Control and Prevention of HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs.
Liu, D., et al. "Monomeric catechin and dimeric procyanidin B2 against human norovirus
surrogates and their physicochemical interactions." Food Microbiol. 2018 Dec; 76: 346-353.
Karthika, V., et al. "Guazuma ulmifolia bark-synthesized Ag, Au and Ag/Au alloy nanoparticles:
Photocatalytic potential, DNA/protein interactions, anticancer activity and toxicity against 14
species of microbial pathogens." J. Photochem. Photobiol B. 2017 Feb; 167: 189-199.
Yang, Z., et al. "Comparison of in vitro antiviral activity of tea polyphenols against influenza A
and B viruses and structure-activity relationship analysis." Fitoterapia. 2014 Mar; 93: 47-53.
Syaefudin, O., et al. "Antioxidant activity of flavonoid from Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk. leaves and
apoptosis induction in yeast cells." J. Bio. Sci. 2014: 14(4); 305-310.
Boligon, A,. et al. "Essential oil composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Guazuma
ulmifolia from Brazil" Med. Aromat. Plants 2013 Jul; 2: 126.
Violante, I., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the
centralwestern region of Brazil." Braz. J. Microbiol. 2012 Oct; 43(4): 1302-8.
Alvarez, A., et al. "Apple pomace, a by-product from the asturian cider industry, inhibits herpes
simplex virus types 1 and 2 in vitro replication: study of its mechanisms of action." J. Med.
Food. 2012 Jun; 15(6): 581-7.
Jacobo-Salcedo, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants."
Nat. Prod. Commun. 2011 Dec; 6(12): 1925-8.
Kaneria, M., et al. "Determination of antibacterial and antioxidant potential of some medicinal
plants from Saurashtra region, India." Indian J. Pharm Sci. 2009 Jul; 71(4): 406-12.
Felipe, A., et al. "Antiviral effect of Guazuma ulmifolia and Stryphnodendron adstringens on
Poliovirus and Bovine Herpesvirus." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 29(6): 1092-5.
Heinrich. M. "Ethnobotany and natural products: the search for new molecules, new treatments
of old diseases or a better understanding of indigenous cultures?" Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 2003;
Navarro, M., et al. "Antibacterial, antiprotozoal and antioxidant activity of five plants used in
Izabal for infectious diseases." Phytother. Res. 2003; 17(4): 325-9.
Caceres, A., et al. "Anti-gonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of
sexually transmitted diseases." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1995; 48(2): 85-88.
Hattori, M., et al. "Inhibitory effects of various Ayurvedic and Panamania medicinal plants on the
infection of Herpes simplex virus-1 in vitro and in vivo." Phytother. Res. 1995; 9(4): 270-76.
Caceres, A., et al. "Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. 3.
Confirmation of activity against enterobacteria of 16 plants." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 38(1):
Heinrich, M., et al. "Parasitological and microbiological evaluation of Mixe Indian medicinal
plants." (Mexico) J. Ethnopharmacol. 1992; 36(1): 81-85.
Caceres, A., et al. "Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. 1.
Screening of 84 plants against enterobacteria." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1990; 30(1): 55-73.
Anamu showed antiviral activity against the bovine diarrhea virus which is the test model
used for human Hepatitis C. Ruffa, M. J., et al. "Antiviral activity of Petiveria alliacea against the bovine diarrhea virus."
Chemotherapy 2002; 48(3): 144-47.
Zavala Ocampo, L., et al. "Antiamoebic activity of Petiveria alliacea leaves and their main
component, isoarborinol." J. Micriol. Biotechnol. 2017 Aug; 27(8): 1401-1408.
Kasper, S., et al. "Chemical inhibition of kynureninase reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa
quorum sensing and virulence factor expression. ACS Chem. Biol. 2016 Apr; 11(4): 1106-17.
Kasper, S., et al. "S-aryl-L-cysteine sulphoxides and related organosulphur compounds alter
oral biofilm development and AI-2-based cell-cell communication." J. Appl. Microbiol. 2014 Nov;
Kim, S., et al. "Antibacterial and antifungal activity of sulfur-containing compounds from
Petiveria alliacea L." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar; 104(1-2): 188-92.
Kubec, R., et al. "The lachrymatory principle of Petiveria alliacea." Phytochemistry. 2003 May;
Benevides, P., et al. "Antifungal polysulphides from Petiveria alliacea L." Phytochemistry. 2001;
Caceres, A., et al. "Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I.
Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants." J.
Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Oct; 62(3): 195-202.
Berger, I., et al. "Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity
of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi." J.Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Sep; 62(2): 107-15.
Hoyos, L., et al. "Evaluation of the genotoxic effects of a folk medicine, Petiveria alliaceae
(Anamu)." Mutat. Res. 1992; 280(1): 29-34.
Misas, C., et al. "The biological assessment of Cuban plants. III." Rev. Cub. Med. Trop. 1979;
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