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ANAMU
(Petiveria alliacea)

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ANAMU


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  • Family: Phytolaccaceae
    Genus: Petiveria
    Species: alliacea
    Synonyms: Mapa graveolens, P. corrientina, P. foetida, P. graveolens, P. hexandria, P. paraguayensis
    Common names: Anamu, apacin, apacina, apazote de zorro, aposin, ave, aveterinaryte, calauchin, chasser vermine, congo root, douvant-douvant, emeruaiuma, garlic weed, guinea henweed, guine, guinea, guinea hen leaf, gully root, herbe aux poules, hierba de las gallinitas, huevo de gato, kojo root, kuan, kudjuruk, lemtewei, lemuru, mal pouri, mapurit, mapurite, mucura-caa, mucura, mucuracáa, ocano, payche, pipi, tipi, verbena hedionda, verveine puante, zorrillo
    Part Used: whole herb

    From The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs:

    ANAMU
    HERBAL PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS
    Main Actions Other Actions Standard Dosage
  • reduces pain
  • reduces spasms
  • Whole herb
  • kills bacteria
  • reduces anxiety
  • Infusion: 1/4 to 1/2 cup 2-3
  • kills cancer cells
  • reduces fever
  • times daily
  • kills fungi
  • lowers blood sugar
  • Capsules: 1-3 g daily
  • reduces inflammation
  • kills insects
  •  
  • kills leukemia cells
  • promotes menstruation
  •  
  • reduces free radicals
  • sedates
  •  
  • prevents tumors
  • increases perspiration
  •  
  • kills viruses
  • expels worms
  •  
  • kills Candida
  •    
  • increases urination
  •    
  • enhances immunity
  •    

    Anamu is an herbaceous perennial that grows up to 1 m in height. It is indigenous to the Amazon rainforest and tropical areas of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Africa. It produces dark green leathery leaves that lie close to the ground and tall spikes lined with small white flowers that float airily above the leaves. It is sometimes called "garlic weed," as the plant, and especially the roots, have a strong garlic odor. It is called mucura in the Peruvian Amazon, anamu or tipi in Brazil, and guine in other parts of Latin America.

    TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

    In the Amazon rainforest, anamu is used as part of an herbal bath against witchcraft by the Indians and local jungle herbal healers called curanderos. The Ka'apor Indians call it mikur-ka'a (which means opossum herb) and use it for both medicine and magic. The Caribs in Guatemala crush the root and inhale it for sinusitis, and the Ese'Ejas Indians in the Peruvian Amazon prepare a leaf infusion for colds and flu. The Garifuna indigenous people in Nicaragua also employ a leaf infusion or decoction for colds, coughs, and aches and pains, as well as for magic rituals. The root is thought to be more powerful than the leaves. It is considered a pain reliever and is often used in the rainforest in topical remedies for the skin. Other indigenous Indian groups beat the leaves into a paste and use it externally for headache, rheumatic pain, and other types of pain. This same jungle remedy is also used as an insecticide.

    Anamu has a long history in herbal medicine in all of the tropical countries where it grows. In Brazilian herbal medicine, it is considered an antispasmodic, diuretic, menstrual promoter, stimulant, and sweat promoter. Herbalists and natural health practitioners there use anamu for edema, arthritis, malaria, rheumatism, and poor memory, and as a topical analgesic and anti-inflammatory for skin afflictions. Throughout Central America, women use anamu to relieve birthing pains and facilitate easy childbirth as well as to induce abortions. In Guatemalan herbal medicine, the plant is called apacín and a leaf decoction is taken internally for digestive ailments and sluggish digestion, flatulence, and fever. A leaf decoction is also used externally as an analgesic for muscular pain and for skin diseases. Anamu is commonly used in big cities and towns in South and Central America as a natural remedy to treat colds, coughs, influenza, respiratory and pulmonary infections, and cancer, and to support the immune system. In Cuba, herbalists decoct the whole plant and use it to treat cancer and diabetes, and as an anti-inflammatory and abortive.

    PLANT CHEMICALS

    Many biologically active compounds have been discovered in anamu, including flavonoids, triterpenes, steroids, and sulfur compounds. Anamu contains a specific sulfur compound named dibenzyl trisulfide. In a plant-screening program at the University of Illinois at Chicago that evaluated more than 1400 plant extracts as novel therapies for the prevention and treatment of cancer, anamu was one of 34 plants identified with active properties against cancer. The researchers reported that dibenzyl trisulfide was one of two of the active compounds in anamu with anticancerous actions. Anamu also contains the phytochemicals astilbin, benzaldehyde, and coumarin, all three of which have been documented with antitumorous and/or anticancerous properties as well.

    Main chemicals found in anamu include allantoin, astilbin, barbinervic acid, benzylhydroxytrisulfide, coumarin, daucosterol, dibenzyl sulfide, engeletin, friedelinol, ilexgenin A, leridal, leridol, lignoceric acid, linoleic acid, myricitrin, nonadecanoic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, petiveral, pinitol, proline, sitosterol, stearic acid, and trithiolaniacine.

    BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

    The research published on anamu (and the plant chemicals described above) reveals that it has a broad range of therapeutic properties, including antileukemic, antitumorous, and anticancerous activities against several types of cancer cells. In an in vitro study by Italian researchers in 1990, water extracts and ethanol extracts of anamu retarded the growth of leukemia cells and several other strains of cancerous tumor cells. Three years later, the researchers followed up with another study, which showed that the same extracts had a cytotoxic effect, actually killing some of these cancer cells, rather than just retarding their growth. This study indicated that whole herb water extracts of anamu were toxic to leukemia and lymphoma cancer cells but only inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells. More recently, a study published in 2002 documented an in vitro toxic effect against a liver cancer cell line; another in vitro study in 2001 reported that anamu retarded the growth of brain cancer cells. A German study documenting anamu's activity against brain cancer cells related its actions to the sulfur compounds found in the plant.

    In addition to its documented anticancerous properties, anamu has also been found in both in vivo and in vitro studies to be an immunostimulant. In a 1993 study with mice, a water extract stimulated immune cell production (lymphocytes and Interleukin II). In the same year, another study with mice demonstrated that an anamu extract increased natural killer cell activity by 100% and stimulated the production of even more types of immune cells (Interferon, Interleukin II, and Interleukin 4). Additional research from 1997 to 2001 further substantiated anamu's immunostimulant actions in humans and animals.

    Anamu's traditional use as a remedy for arthritis and rheumatism has been validated by clinical research confirming its pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties. One research group in Sweden reported that anamu possesses cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitory actions. COX-1 inhibitors are a new (and highly profitable) class of arthritis drugs being sold today by pharmaceutical companies. Another research group in Brazil documented significant anti-inflammatory effects in rats using various models, and researchers in 2002 noted a significant pain-relieving effect in rats. The pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects were even verified when an ethanol extract was applied topically in rats, again validating traditional use.

    Many clinical reports and studies document that anamu shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties against numerous strains of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and yeast. In a 2002 study, anamu extracts inhibited the replication of the bovine diarrhea virus; this is a test model for hepatitis C virus. A Cuban research group documented anamu's antimicrobial properties in vitro against numerous pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, and Shigella and, interestingly enough, their crude water extracts performed better than any of the alcohol extracts. A German group documented good activity against several bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, several strains of fungi, and Candida Anamu's antifungal properties were documented by one research group in 1991, and again by a separate research group in 2001. Its antimicrobial activity was further demonstrated by researchers from Guatemala and Austria who, in separate studies in 1998, confirmed its activity in vitro and in vivo studies against several strains of protozoa, bacteria, and fungi.

    While anamu has not been used widely employed for diabetes, it has been clinically documented to have hypoglycemic actions. Researchers in 1990 demonstrated the in vivo hypoglycemic effect of anamu, showing that anamu decreased blood sugar levels by more than 60% one hour after administration to mice. This finding reflects herbal medicine practice in Cuba where anamu has been used as an herbal aid for diabetes for many years.



    Leslie Taylor's 2013 Update on Anamu

    When I wrote my second book on rainforest medicinal plants, cancer research on anamu was just beginning. It has come a long way in a relatively short time frame in this particular area of research! Researchers in Colombia who were following up on anamu's previously reported anticancerous and antitumorous actions conducted several in vitro tests in 2008 trying to determine the exact mechanism by which anamu kills or inhibits cancer cells. They reported that anamu has several distinct and very different pathways and mechanisms which have a direct action on cancer cells. They noted that with anamu's multiple biological actions against cancer that it: "appears to be a good candidate to be used as an antitumor agent" and that further animal studies were necessary and warranted. Several of the anticancerous studies on anamu have attributed this action to a chemical found in anamu called dibenzyl trisulfide. Researchers from the West Indies reported in 2007 that dibenzyl trisulfide exhibited potent anti-proliferation and cytotoxic activity on a wide range of cancer cell lines (some cell lines with up to 100% mortality!) with little to no toxicity to healthy cells. Then, just two years later, a U.S. company changed this natural plant chemical in anamu slightly and patented it in 2009 as a new chemotherapy drug for cancer. They've called this new drug fluorapacin and applied for Phase I Human Clinical trials in 2010 in China. Did they skip that step of testing their drug in animals first? Maybe they just didn't want to waste the time to have their animal studies published in all the normal peer reviewed medical journals ( a few animal tests were referred to in their patents). That's what I call "fast-tracking" in cancer drug development! It doesn't look as if this clinical trial on fluorapacin has been approved yet so maybe they are doing those animals studies first. They did publish one preliminary study on the in vitro testing among various cell lines with their new drug in 2009. In the meantime, anamu still continues to be a great natural remedy for cancer as it has been for many years.

    Previously in the book, I also reviewed anamu's documented immunostimulant actions. In a critical review published in 2007 on dibenzyl trisulphide, West Indian researchers describe this action to be more of a immune modulation action rather than a stimulatory action. They explained: "Dibenzyl trisulphide seems to have a cytokine switching mechanism in which it down regulates cytokines from the Type I helper cells (Th -1 cell) pathway which contained several pro-inflammatory cytokines and up-regulates those on the Type 2 helper cells (Th-2) pathway." Basically this means it increases the actions of the immune cells which are responsible for tracking down and removing foreign cells like bacteria and cancer, but its' previously documented anti-inflammatory action might be from suppressing other anti-inflammatory immune cells which cause inflammation. Another research group in Colombia did a preliminary in vitro test and reported that a water extract of anamu evidenced immune modulation activity in 2012 but didn't specifically attribute that to any one chemical, despite this earlier research on dibenzyl trisulphide.

    Personal Note: As I have been reading hundreds of new studies on all the plants in my book to update it, I have been struck by an emerging belief in the scientists that are conducting this research specifically for cancer. I keep reading over and over again that these researchers now believe inflammation to be an underlying or causal effect to some types of tumorous cancers. These researchers are now revisiting the medicinal plants, plant chemicals and other substances with known anti-inflammatory actions to test them for anticancerous actions. Some of these scientists have also come to some type of hypothesis that anti-inflammatory plants could even be considered cancer-preventative if the plants effectively reduced chronic inflammation or modulated over-stimulated immune cells which create the inflammation in the first place. Therefore, a new area of study is emerging testing anti-inflammatory plants for cancer-preventative actions as well. It will be interesting to see where this new research leads! Years ago, research pretty much confirmed that antileukemic plants were almost always antiviral (but never could prove leukemia was caused by a virus). The same could be true with anti-inflammatory plants and cancerous tumors. In my opinion, anamu would be a perfect candidate for this type of research since it meets this inflammation criteria and it has a direct toxic actions to tumor cells to boot! One of the West Indian researchers publishing prior studies on anamu or dibenzyl trisulfide's actions on the immune system and thymus (Willams, L., et al.) published an editorial article in 2010 stating his belief that dibenzyl trisulfide provided anti-aging, immune enhancement, and antioxidant actions. He said this chemical: "may be capable of delaying the onset of ageing (degenerative) diseases such as osteoarthritis and some forms of cancer."

    Recent research also confirms that anamu is a very good example of a medicinal plant which can have very different actions depending on what part of the plant is used and why consumers should be aware of which part of the plant is being marketed and sold. Brazilian university researchers reported that they have re-confirmed anamu's stimulant action on locomotor activity and also reported that a alcohol extract of the whole plant demonstrated anti-depressant, memory improvement, anti-anxiety and antioxidant actions in their study with rats in 2012. Other university researchers in Brazil had previously reported in 2010 that anamu had an effect on anxiety in their studies with mice as well. Interestingly, they reported in that an extract of the fresh whole plant evidenced anti-anxiety actions, but an extract of just the aerial parts increased anxiety, and a root extract had no activity at all. They noted that the flavonoid content of the three extracts varied widely, but couldn't attribute the effects on anxiety to this group of active chemicals. Previously in 2008, research conducted by yet a third Brazilian university reported that the root of anamu decreased locomotor activity (had a sedative effect) with direct actions in the central nervous system by demonstrating significant depressant and anticonvulsant actions.

    The National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development in Nigeria began a screening program in 2011 to study the local herbal remedies for sickle cell anemia (a prevalent disease in that country). Anamu was reported to be one of the first three medicinal plants identified with anti-sickling actions in their study published in 2012. In another screening program, German researchers screening plants traditionally used for wound healing in 2009 reported anamu turned out to be one of three of the most active plants they tested. Scientists in Mexico reported that anamu might be an excellent agent for killing ticks on cattle. A methanol extract of the leaf and stem of anamu was shown to have 100% mortality against ticks in their research published in 2010. In 2008, Japanese researchers discovered a new chemical derivative in anamu and reported it to possess antioxidant actions. University researchers in the U.S. reported anamu's antimicrobial actions in 2006 and reported that the chemical dibenzyl trisulfide and other benzyl-containing chemicals in the plant had the strongest actions against the largest number of bacteria and fungi. The Brazilian researchers who had previously reported anamu's pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory action in 2002 published another study in 2005 reporting that a anamu root extract had pain-relieving actions as well.

    Other researchers in the West Indies tested dibenzyl trisulfide extracted from anamu in vitro in human blood. They reported in 2010 that this chemical (at much higher dosages than would be obtained from using anamu at traditional dosages), resulted in increased elasticity, relaxation time and deformation of the erythrocytes in the blood. However, acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies were conducted on anamu leaves by researchers in Costa Rica in 2006. They reported no mortality nor any toxicity signs could be observed even at very high dosages.

    Whew! That's a lot of research in just 7 years on a previously little-known Amazonian medicinal plant! See the cited research below. No wonder the U.S. sales of anamu have been increasing over the last five years and word is traveling about this wonderful sustainable rainforest plant.



    CURRENT PRACTICAL USES

    With the many documented properties and actions of this tropical plant, it is no wonder that anamu has enjoyed such a long history of use in herbal medicine. Continuing research on this plant's attributes is quantifying and qualifying the richness of indigenous herbal traditions. Today, in South America, anamu is being used for its immune stimulant and anticancerous properties as a support aid for cancer and leukemia patients. This use is catching on here in the United States, and anamu is now available in capsules and tablets under several labels. It is also being employed in various formulas for its antimicrobial actions against bacteria, viruses, yeast, and fungi, as well as in other formulas supporting immune function.

    In the first published study on toxicity in 1992, researchers noted that, at high dosages, anamu extract delayed cell proliferation in vitro. When they tested the extract in mice, they noted that it caused a change in bone marrow cells; however, they were using 100 to 400 times the traditional dosage given to humans. In two independent studies published later by other researchers, oral doses of leaf and root extracts did not cause any toxicity in rats and mice at up to 5 grams per kilogram of body weight. Methanol extracts of the plant did, however, cause uterine contractions in an early study; such contractions can lead to abortion, one of anamu's well documented uses in traditional herbal medicine.


    ANAMU PLANT SUMMARY
    Main Preparation Method: capsules or infusion

    Main Actions (in order):
    anticancerous, antiviral, anticandidal, antibacterial, immune stimulant

    Main Uses:

    1. for cancer and leukemia
    2. for immune disorders (to stimulate immune function and immune cell production)
    3. for colds, flu, and viruses
    4. for Candida and other yeast infections
    5. for urinary tract infections
    Properties/Actions Documented by Research:
    abortive, analgesic (pain-reliever), anti-inflammatory, antileukemic, antibacterial, anticancerous, anticandidal, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antitumorous, antiviral, COX-inhibitor (linked to inflammation), hypoglycemic, immune stimulant, uterine stimulant

    Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use:
    anti-anxiety, antioxidant, anti-rheumatic, antispasmodic, diaphoretic (promotes sweating), diuretic, febrifuge (reduces fever), insecticide, menstrual stimulant, sedative, vermifuge (expels worms)

    Cautions: It has abortive and hypoglycemic effects.



    Traditional Preparation: The traditional remedy calls for a decoction or infusion prepared with 30 grams of dried anamu whole herb in a liter of water; 1/4 cup to 1/2 dosages are taken one to three times daily or used topically, depending on the condition treated. Since most of the chemicals are water soluble, powdered whole herb in tablets or capsules (1-3 grams) daily can be substituted, if desired.

    Contraindications:

    • Methanol extracts of anamu cause uterine contractions, which can lead to abortion. As such, anamu is contraindicated for pregnant women.
    • Anamu contains a low concentration of coumarin, which has a blood thinning effect. People with blood disorders such as hemophilia and, people on blood-thinning medications should not use this plant without the supervision and advice of a qualified healthcare practitioner.
    • This plant has been shown to have hypoglycemic effects in mice. People with hypoglycemia and diabetes should not use this plant unless they are under the care of a healthcare practitioner to monitor their blood sugar levels.

    Drug Interactions: None published. However, due to anamu's natural coumarin content, it is conceivable that it may potentiate the effects of coumadin (Warfarin®).



    WORLDWIDE ETHNOMEDICAL USES
    Argentina for colds, diarrhea, fever, headache, menstrual problems, respiratory tract infections, rheumatism, swellings, toothache, urinary infections, urinary insufficiency
    Brazil for abortions, asthma, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, fever, headache, inflammation, increasing perspiration, intestinal parasites, malaria, menstrual disorders, osteoarthritis, pain, rheumatism, spasms, toothache, urinary insufficiency, venereal disease, worms and as a insecticide and sedative
    Colombia for cavity prevention, childbirth, snakebite
    Cuba for abortions, cancer, diabetes, inflammation
    Guatemala for abscesses, blood disorders, boils, dermatitis, diarrhea, erysipelas, fever, headache, menstrual problems, pimples, ringworm, sinusitis, skin disease, skin eruptions, skin fungus, stomach cramps
    Latin America for abortions, absence of menses, cleansing blood, hysteria, increasing perspiration, nerves, reducing phlegm, spasms, urinary insufficiency
    Mexico for abortions, boils, catarrh, childbirth, cleansing blood, colds, delayed menses, epilepsy, fever, headache, heat rash, hives, hysteria, increasing perspiration, influenza, nerves, paralysis, pimples, rabies, repelling insects, rheumatism, reducing phlegm, spasms, toothache, tumor, urinary insufficiency, venereal diseases, worms
    Nicaragua for aches, colds, coughs, heart problems, kidney disorders, liver support, pains, pulmonary disorders, respiratory disorders, snakebite
    Paraguay for abortions, digestive diseases, fever, flu, menstrual disorders, pain (muscular), sinusitis, skin disease, toothache, and as an insecticide
    Puerto Rico for abortions, cholera, childbirth, fever, menstrual problems
    Peru for colds, flu
    Trinidad for abortions, cleansing blood, cystitis, flu, head cold, irritations, menstrual disorders, thinning blood, venereal disease
    Venezuela for abortions, cavities, cleansing blood, intestinal parasites, menstrual difficulties, root canal problems, spasms, worms
    Elsewhere for abortions, asthma, cancer, childbirth, colds, coughs, fever, headache, increasing perspiration, inflammation, intestinal parasites, lung disorders, menstrual problems, nervousness, pain, reducing phlegm, rheumatism, snakebite, spasms, toothache, urinary insufficiency, venereal disease, worms and as an aphrodisiac, insecticide, and sedative



    The above text has been reprinted from The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs by Leslie Taylor, copyrighted © 2004
    All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, including websites, without written permission.

    A complete Technical Data Report is available for this plant.

    † The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.




    Published Third-Party Research on Anamu


    All available third-party research on anamu can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published research on anamu is shown below:

    Cytotoxic & Anticancerous Actions:
    Williams, L., et al. "Life's immunity as a normal distribution function: philosophies for the use of dibenzyl trisulphide in immunity enhancement and life extension" West Indian Med. J.2010 Oct;59(5):455.
    Williams, L., et al. "Implications of dibenzyl trisulphide for disease treatment based on its mode of action." West Indian Med J. 2009 Nov;58(5):407-9.
    Urueña, C., et al. "Petiveria alliacea extracts uses multiple mechanisms to inhibit growth of human and mouse tumoral cells." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2008 Nov 18; 8:60.
    Williams, L., et al. "A critical review of the therapeutic potential of dibenzyl trisulphide isolated from Petiveria alliacea L (guinea hen weed, anamu)." West Indian Med. J. 2007 Jan; 56(1): 17-21.
    An, H., et al. "Synthesis and anti-tumor evaluation of new trisulfide derivatives." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2006 Sep; 16(18): 4826-9.
    Williams, L. A., et al. "In vitro anti-proliferation/cytotoxic activity of sixty natural products on the human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with specific reference to dibenzyl trisulphide." West Indian Med. J. 2004 Sep; 53(4): 208-19.
    Ruffa, M. J., et al. “Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.” ; J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 79(3): 335-39.
    Mata-Greenwood, E., et al. “Discovery of novel inducers of cellular differentiation using HL-60 promyelocytic cells.” Anticancer Res. 2001; 21(3B): 1763-70.
    Rosner, H., et al. “Disassembly of microtubules and inhibition of neurite outgrowth, neuroblastoma cell proliferation, and MAP kinase tyrosine dephosphorylation by dibenzyl trisulphide.” Biochem. Biophys. Acta 2001; 1540(2): 166-77.
    Jovicevic, L., et al. “In vitro antiproliferative activity of Petiveria alliacea L. on several tumor cell lines.” Pharmacol. Res. 1993; 27(1): 105-06.
    Rossi, V., et al. “Antiproliferative effects of Petiveria alliacea on several tumor cell lines.” Pharmacol. Res. Suppl. 1990; 22(2): 434.
    Yan, R., et al. “Astilbin selectively facilitates the apoptosis of interleukin-2-dependent phytohemaglutinin-activated Jurkat cells.” Pharmacol. Res. 2001; 44(2): 135-39.
    Weber, U. S., et al. “Antitumor activities of coumarin, 7-hydroxy-coumarin and its glucuronide in several human tumor cell lines”. Res. Commun. Mol. Pathol. Pharmacol. 1998; 99(2): 193-206.
    Bassi, A. M., et al. “Comparative evaluation of cytotoxicity and metabolism of four aldehydes in two hepatoma cell lines.” Drug Chem. Toxicol. 1997 Aug; 20(3): 173-87.

    Anti-Sickling Actions
    Ameh, S., et al. "Traditional herbal management of sickle cell anemia: lessons from Nigeria." Anemia. 2012; 2012:607436.

    Immunostimulant & Antioxidant Actions:
    Santander, S., et al. "Immunomodulatory effects of aqueous and organic fractions from Petiveria alliacea on human dendritic cells." Am J Chin Med. 2012;40(4):833-44
    Williams, L. "Life's immunity as a normal distribution function: philosophies for the use of dibenzyl trisulphide in immunity enhancement and life extension." West Indian Med J. 2010 Oct;59(5):455.
    Okada, Y., et al. "Antioxidant activity of the new thiosulfinate derivative, S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate, from Petiveria alliacea L." Org. Biomol. Chem. 2008 Mar 21; 6(6): 1097-102.
    Queiroz, M. L., et al. “Cytokine profile and natural killer cell activity in Listeria monocytogenes infected mice treated orally with Petiveria alliacea extract. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 2000 Aug; 22(3): 501-18.
    Quadros, M. R., et al. “Petiveria alliacea L. extract protects mice against Listeria monocytogenes infection—effects on bone marrow progenitor cells.” Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 1999 Feb; 21(1): 109-24.
    Williams, L., et al. “Immunomodulatory activities of Petiveria alliaceae L.” Phytother. Res. 1997; 11(3): 251253.
    Rossi, V., “Effects of Petiveria alliacea L. on cell immunity.” Pharmacol. Res. 1993; 27(1): 111-12.
    Marini, S., “Effects of Petiveria alliacea L. on cytokine production and natural killer cell activity.” Pharmacol. Res. 1993; 27(1): 107-08.

    Anti-inflammatory & Pain-Relieving Actions:
    de Morais Lima, G., et al. "Database Survey of Anti-Inflammatory Plants in South America: A Review" Int J Mol Sci. 2011; 12(4): 2692–2749.
    Gomes, P. B., et al. “Study of antinociceptive effect of isolated fractions from Petiveria alliacea L. (tipi) in mice.” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2005; 28(1): 42-6.
    Lopes-Martins, R. A., et al. “The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of a crude extract of Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae).” Phytomedicine. 2002; 9(3): 245-48.
    Dunstan, C. A., et al. “Evaluation of some Samoan and Peruvian medicinal plants by prostaglandin biosynthesis and rat ear oedema assays.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Jun; 57(1): 35-56.
    Germano, D., et al. “Pharmacological assay of Petiveria alliaceae. Oral anti-inflammatory activity and gastrotoxicity of a hydro alcoholic root extract.” Fitoterapia. 1993; 64(5): 459-467
    Germano, D. H., et al. “Topical anti-inflammatory activity and toxicity of Petiveria alliaceae.” Fitoterapia. 1993; 64(5): 459-67.
    de Lima, T. C., et al. “Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (Guine) in animals.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 1991; 86 Suppl 2: 153-58.
    Di Stasi, L. C., et al. “Screening in mice of some medicinal plants used for analgesic purposes in the state of Saõ Paulo.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1988; 24(2/3): 205–11.

    Wound Healing Actions:
    Schmidt, C., et al. "Biological studies on Brazilian plants used in wound healing." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Apr 21; 122(3): 523-32.

    Antimicrobial & Antiparasitic Actions:
    Kim, S., et al. “Antibacterial and antifungal activity of sulfur-containing compounds from Petiveria alliacea L.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar; 104(1-2): 188-92.
    Kubec, R., et al. “The lachrymatory principle of Petiveria alliacea.” Phytochemistry. 2003 May; 63(1): 37-40.
    Ruffa, M. J., et al. “Antiviral activity of Petiveria alliacea against the bovine diarrhea virus. Chemotherapy 2002; 48(3): 144-47.
    Benevides, P. J., et al. “Antifungal polysulphides from Petiveria alliacea L.” Phytochemistry. 2001; 57(5): 743-7.
    Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Oct; 62(3): 195-202.
    Berger, I., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Sep; 62(2): 107-15.
    Hoyos, L., et al. “Evaluation of the genotoxic effects of a folk medicine, Petiveria alliaceae (Anamu).” Mutat. Res. 1992; 280(1): 29-34.
    Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. I. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 31(3): 263-76.
    Misas, C.A.J., et al. “The biological assessment of Cuban plants. III.” Rev. Cub. Med. Trop. 1979; 31(1): 21–27.
    Von Szczepanski, C., et al. “Isolation, structure elucidation and synthesis of an antimicrobial substance from Petiveria alliacea.” Arzneim-Forsch 1972; 22: 1975–.
    Feng, P., et al. “Further pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1964; 16: 115.

    Sedative, Antidepressant, & Anticonvulsant Actions:
    de Andrade, T., et al. "Potential behavioral and pro-oxidant effects of Petiveria alliacea L. extract in adult rats." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Sep 28;143(2):604-10.
    Gomes, F., et al. "Central effects of isolated fractions from the root of Petiveria alliacea L. (tipi) in mice." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Nov 20; 120(2): 209-14.

    Anxiogenic Actions:
    de Andrade, T., et al. "Potential behavioral and pro-oxidant effects of Petiveria alliacea L. extract in adult rats." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Sep 28;143(2):604-10.
    Blainski, A., et al. "Dual effects of crude extracts obtained from Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae) on experimental anxiety in mice." J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Mar 24;128(2):541-4.

    Hypoglycemic Actions:
    Lans, C. A. "Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus." J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomedicine. 2006 Oct 13; 2: 45.
    Lores, R. I., et al. “Petiveria alliaceae L. (anamu). Study of the hypoglycemic effect.” Med. Interne. 1990; 28(4): 347–52.

    Insecticidal Actions:
    Rosado-Aguilar, J., et al. "Acaricidal activity of extracts from Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) against the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: ixodidae)." Vet Parasitol. 2010 Mar 25;168(3-4):299-303.

    Non-Toxic Actions:
    García-González, M., et al. "Subchronic and acute preclinic toxicity and some pharmacological effects of the water extract from leaves of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae)." Rev. Biol. Trop. 2006 Dec; 54(4): 1323-6.

    Chemical Constituents Identified:
    Musah, R., et al. "Discovery and characterization of a novel lachrymatory factor synthase in Petiveria alliacea and its influence on alliinase-mediated formation of biologically active organosulfur compounds." Plant Physiol. 2009 Nov; 151(3): 1294-303.
    Musah, R., et al. "Studies of a novel cysteine sulfoxide lyase from Petiveria alliacea: the first heteromeric alliinase. Plant Physiol. 2009 Nov; 151(3): 1304-16.


    Quoted References for Anamu

    10. "Petiveria alliacea L. Phytolaccaceae. "Chanviro", "Micura", "Mocosa", "Mucura", "Sacha ajo". Reportedly abortive, antispasmodic, antirheumatic, antipyretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, sudorific; mostly used in magic rituals call "limpias" ("cleansing"). The curanderos bathe the patients in the liquid left from the infusion to cleanse them from the "salt" (bad luck); other people bathe with it on the first hour of the new year. Colombians chew the plant in order to coat their teeth and protect them from cavities (GAB). Also used in ritual amulets. Preclinical tests show depressive effects on the central nervous system (CNS), with anticonvulsive effects (RVM). "Créoles" use it to get rid of bad spirits; the roots are antispasmodic and antipyretic; the leaf decoction, sudorific and cough suppressant. "Palikur" use to protect their children against bad luck, and in baths for the vitamin deficiency called "coqueluche" (GMJ). "Tikuna" bathe feverish patients in the leaf infusion and wash headache with the decoction. For bronchitis and pneumonia, a drop of kerosene and lemon juice is added to a teaspoon of macerated leaves (SAR). Rutter mentions beriberi, cramps, nerves, paralysis, rheumatism, scabies, scorpion sting, spider bites, toothache, venereal diseases, and vision, calling the herb abortifacient, analgesic, contraceptive, diuretic, emmenagogue, vermifuge, and insecticide (RAR). Independently, two different sources, one Venezuelan, one Colombian, related anecdotes about "curing" pancreatic cancer with Petiveria (JAD). Tramil all but endorses inhalation of the aroma for migraine and sinusitis, and using as a mouthwash for toothache (TRA)."

    21. "The Tikuna tribe bathe feverish patients in water in which young leaves are allowed to soak overnight. They treat headaches also by washing the head with a decoction of the leaves. A few macerated leaves are placed in a teaspoon into which a drop of lemon juice and a drop of kerosene are added; this preparation is taken to treat pneumonia and bronchitis. A drop of the juice of the leaves is put into an aching ear." "Benzylhydroxyethyltrisulfide (Von Szczepanski, 1972), a trithiolane (Adesogan, 1974) and coumarins (Rocha, 1969) have been isolated from P. alliacea."



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