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Chanca Piedra
(Phyllanthus niruri)

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Chanca Piedra

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  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
    Genus: Phyllanthus
    Species: niruri, amarus
    Synonyms: Phyllanthus carolinianus, P, sellowianus, P. fraternus, P. kirganella, P. lathyroides, P. lonphali, Nymphanthus niruri
    Common Names: Chanca piedra, quebra pedra, stone-breaker, arranca-pedras, punarnava, amli, bhonya, bhoomi amalaki, bhui-amla, bhui amla, bhuianvalah, bhuimy-amali, bhuin-amla, bhumyamalaki, cane peas senna, carry-me-seed, creole senna, daun marisan, derriere-dos, deye do, erva-pombinha, elrageig, elrigeg, evatbimi, gale-wind grass, graine en bas fievre, hurricane weed, jar-amla, jar amla, kizha nelli, malva-pedra, mapatan,para-parai mi, paraparai mi, pei, phyllanto, pombinha, quinine weed, sacha foster, cane senna, creole senna, shka-nin-du, viernes santo, ya-taibai, yaa tai bai, yah-tai-bai, yerba de san pablo
    Part Used: Entire plant


    From The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs:

    CHANCA PIEDRA
    HERBAL PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS
    Main Actions Other Actions Standard Dosage
  • expels stones
  • kills bacteria
  • Whole herb
  • supports kidneys
  • treats malaria
  • Infusion: 1 cup 2-3 times daily
  • increases urination
  • prevents mutation
  • Fluid Extract: 2-4 ml 2-3
  • relieves pain
  • reduces fever
  • times daily
  • protects liver
  • mildly laxative
  • Capsules: 1-2 g twice daily
  • detoxifies liver
  • expels worms
  •  
  • reduces spasms
  •    
  • reduces inflammation
  •    
  • kills viruses
  •    
  • clears obstructions
  •    
  • aids digestion
  •    
  • reduces blood sugar
  •    
  • lowers blood pressure
  •    
  • lowers cholesterol
  •    

    Chanca piedra is a small, erect, annual herb that grows 30–40 cm in height. It is indigenous to the rainforests of the Amazon and other tropical areas throughout the world, including the Bahamas, southern India, and China. P. niruri is quite prevalent in the Amazon and other wet rainforests, growing and spreading freely (much like a weed). P. amarus and P. sellowianus are closely related to P. niruri in appearance, phytochemical structure, and history of use, but typically are found in the drier tropical climates of India, Brazil, and even Florida and Texas.

    The Phyllanthus genus contains over 600 species of shrubs, trees, and annual or biennial herbs distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. Unfortunately, there remains a great deal of confusion among scientists regarding plant identification and, in many cases, plant misidentification makes evaluation of published information difficult. P. amarus (Thonn. & Schum) and P. sellowianus are often considered a variety of P. niruri, or no distinction is made among these three species in published clinical research. Oftentimes one name is indicated to be synonymous with another and, sometimes, both names are used interchangeably as if referring to one plant. It became so confusing that, in the 1990s, a major reorganization of the Phyllanthus genus was conducted (which classified P. amarus as a type of P. niruri).

    TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

    The Spanish name of the plant, chanca piedra, means “stone breaker” or “shatter stone.” It was named for its effective use to generations of Amazonian indigenous peoples in eliminating gallstones and kidney stones. In Brazil, the plant is known as quebra-pedra or arranca-pedras (which also translates to “break-stone”). In addition to kidney stones, the plant is employed in the Amazon for numerous other conditions by the indigenous peoples, including colic, diabetes, malaria, dysentery, fever, flu, tumors, jaundice, vaginitis, gonorrhea, and dyspepsia. Based on its long documented history of use in the region, the plant is generally employed to reduce pain, expel intestinal gas, to stimulate and promote digestion, to expel worms, as a mild laxative.

    Chanca piedra has a long history in herbal medicine systems in every tropical country where it grows. For the most part, it is employed for similar conditions worldwide. Its main uses are for many types of biliary and urinary conditions including kidney and gallbladder stones; for hepatitis, colds, flu, tuberculosis, and other viral infections; liver diseases and disorders including anemia, jaundice and liver cancer; and for bacterial infections such as cystitis, prostatitis, venereal diseases and urinary tract infections. It is also widely employed for diabetes and hypertension as well as for its diuretic, pain-relieving, digestive stimulant, antispasmodic, fever reducing, and cellular protective properties in many other conditions.

    PLANT CHEMICALS

    Since the mid-1960s, chanca piedra has been the subject of much phytochemical research to determine the active constituents and their pharmacological activities. It is a rich source of plant chemicals, including many which have been found only in the Phyllanthus genus. Many of the "active" constituents are attributed to biologically active lignans, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, ellagitannins, and phenylpropanoids found in the leaf, stem, and root of the plant. Common lipids, sterols, and flavonols also occur in the plant.

    The main plant chemicals in chanca piedra include alkaloids, astragalin, brevifolin, carboxylic acids, corilagin, cymene, ellagic acid, ellagitannins, gallocatechins, geraniin, hypophyllanthin, lignans, lintetralins, lupeols, methyl salicylate, niranthin, nirtetralin, niruretin, nirurin, nirurine, niruriside, norsecurinines, phyllanthin, phyllanthine, phyllanthenol, phyllochrysine, phyltetralin, repandusinic acids, quercetin, quercetol, quercitrin, rutin, saponins, triacontanal, and tricontanol.

    BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

    It is little wonder that chanca piedra is used for so many purposes in herbal medicine systems: in clinical research over the years, the plant has demonstrated liver protective, antilithic (expels stones), pain-relieving, hypotensive, antispasmodic, antiviral, antibacterial, diuretic, antimutagenic, and hypoglycemic activities. Due of the confusion among P. niruri, P. amarus, and P. sellowianus over the years (and the reclassification of the genus), the research reviewed herein will encompass that which has been reported on all three of these very similar species.

    The first notable area of study has validated chanca piedra's longstanding traditional use for kidney stones. In 1990, the Paulista School of Medicine in São Paulo, Brazil, conducted studies with humans and rats with kidney stones. They were given a simple tea of chanca piedra for 1-3 months and it was reported that the tea promoted the elimination of stones. They also reported a significant increase in urine output as well as sodium and creatine excretion. Subsequently the medical school educated new doctors about the ability to treat kidney stones with this natural remedy and now it is found in many pharmacies throughout Brazil.

    In a 1999 in vitro clinical study, a chanca piedra extract exhibited the ability to block the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (the building blocks of most kidney stones) which indicates that it might be a useful preventative aid for people with a history of kidney stones. In a 2002 in vivo study, researchers seeded the bladders of rats with calcium oxalate crystals and treated them for 42 days with a water extract of chanca piedra. Their results indicated that chanca piedra strongly inhibited the growth and number of stones formed over the control group. Several of the animals even passed the stones which did form. Most recently (in 2003), scientists again confirmed in vitro that chanca piedra could help prevent the formation of kidney stones stating, ". . . that it may interfere with the early stages of stone formation and may represent an alternative form of treatment and/or prevention of urolithiasis."

    Previously (in the mid-1980s) the antispasmodic activity of chanca piedra was reported. This led researchers to surmise that "smooth muscle relaxation within the urinary or biliary tract probably facilitates the expulsion of kidney or bladder calculi." Researchers had already reported chanca piedra's antispasmodic properties and smooth muscle relaxant properties (including a uterine relaxant effect) in earlier studies. In 1990, Nicole Maxwell reported that Dr. Wolfram Wiemann (of Nuremburg, Germany) treated over 100 kidney stone patients with chanca piedra obtained in Peru and found it to be 94% successful in eliminating stones within a week or two.

    Chanca piedra is also used in herbal medicine for gallstones and, while no research has been performed that specifically validated this use, one study does indicate that chanca piedra has an effect on gallbladder processes. In a 2002 study, Indian researchers reported that chanca piedra increased bile acid secretion in the gallbladder and significantly lowered blood cholesterol levels in rats. The beneficial effects of lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels was also confirmed by another in vivo (rat) study in 1985.

    The plant's traditional use for hypertension has been explored by research as well. The hypotensive effects were first reported in a dog study in 1952 (in which a diuretic effect was noted also). The hypotensive effects were attributed to a specific phytochemical in chanca piedra called geraniin in a 1988 study. In 1995 Indian researchers gave human subjects with high blood pressure chanca piedra leaf powder in capsules and reported a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure, a significant increase in urine volume and sodium excretion. Chanca piedra's diuretic effect in humans was recorded as far back as 1929 and, in India, a tablet of chanca piedra (called Punarnava) is sold as a diuretic there.

    In the above 1995 study, researchers also reported that blood sugar levels were reduced significantly in human subjects studied. Two other studies with rabbits and rats document the hypoglycemic effect of chanca piedra in diabetic animals. Yet another study documented chanca piedra with aldose reductase inhibition (ARI) properties. Aldose reductases are substances that act on nerve endings exposed to high blood sugar concentration and can lead to diabetic neuropathy and macular degeneration. Substances which inhibit these substances can prevent some of the chemical imbalances that occur and thus protect the nerve. This ARI effect of chanca piedra was attributed, in part, to a plant chemical called ellagic acid. This well-studied plant chemical has been documented with many other beneficial effects in numerous clinical studies (over 300 to date).

    Another area of research has focused on the pain-relieving effects of chanca piedra and performed at a Brazilian university. So far, they've published six studies on their findings. The first three studies reported strong and dose-dependent pain-relieving effects in mice given extracts of chanca piedra against six different laboratory-induced pain models. In 1996, they isolated and tested chanca piedra's hypotensive plant chemical geraniin and reported that it was seven times more potent as a pain-reliever than aspirin or acetaminophen. Their last two studies (published in 2000) continued to document chanca piedra's pain-relieving effects against normal pain models in mice, and, newly-tested nerve-related pain models. Again, they related this effect to the geraniin plant chemical and reported its ability to inhibit several neurotransmitter processes that relay and receive pain signals in the brain. Unlike aspirin (which can harm the mucosal lining of the stomach and cause ulcers), geraniin has been reported to have antiulcerous properties and to protect the gastric tract instead. This pain-relieving effect is probably why so many people taking chanca piedra for kidney stones (a very painful affair) report such quick relief and long before chanca piedra could actually break down and expel a stone.

    The liver-protecting activity of chanca piedra is another subject which has been established with clinical research with animals and humans. These effects have been attributed to (at least) two novel plant chemicals in chanca piedra named phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin. The researchers who reported the cholesterol-lowering effects also reported that chanca piedra protected rats from liver damage induced by alcohol, and normalized a "fatty liver." One in vitro study and four in vivo studies (with rats and mice) document that extracts of chanca piedra effectively protect against liver damage from various chemical liver toxins. Two human studies reported chanca piedra's liver protective and detoxifying actions in children with hepatitis and jaundice. Indian researchers reported that chanca piedra was an effective single drug in the treatment of jaundice in children, and British researchers reported that children treated with a chanca piedra extract for acute hepatitis had liver function return to normal within five days. Researchers in China also reported liver protective actions when chanca piedra was given to adults with chronic hepatitis.

    A 2000 study even documented that chanca piedra increased the life span of mice with liver cancer from thirty-tree weeks (control group without treatment) to fifty-two weeks. Another research group tried to induce liver cancer in mice that had been pre-treated with a water extract of chanca piedra. Their results indicated the chanca piedra extract dose-dependently lowered tumor incidence, levels of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, levels of liver cancer markers, and liver injury markers. Both studies indicate that the plant has a better ability to prevent and slow down the growth of tumors rather than a direct toxic effect or ability to kill cancer cells.

    It may well be that chanca piedra's documented ability to stop cells from mutating plays an important factor in this reported anticancerous activity. In several animal studies (as well as within cell cultures), extracts of chanca piedra have stopped or inhibited cells (including liver cells) from mutating in the presence of chemical substances known to create cellular mutations and DNA strand breaks (which can lead to the creation of cancerous cells). Again, one of these studies indicated that chanca piedra inhibited several enzyme processes peculiar to cancer cells' replication and growth-rather than a direct toxic effect of killing the cancer cell (sarcoma, carcinoma, and lymphoma cells were studied). This cellular-protective quality was evidenced in other research which indicated that chanca piedra protected against chemically-induced bone marrow damage in mice, as well as against radiation-induced damage in mice.

    The last area of published research (which is the most extensive and the most confusing) concerns chanca piedra's antiviral properties. Both human and animal studies indicate that chanca piedra can protect the liver, even during hepatitis infection. Chanca piedra has also been reported to have direct antiviral activity in human, animal, and test tube studies against the Hepatitis B virus. Over 20 clinical studies have been published to date about these effects, and the results have been inconsistent and confusing (unless thoroughly evaluated).

    Hepatitis is enough of a worldwide concern to merit sifting through the disparate studies. Hepatitis B infection (HBV) is the leading cause of liver cancer worldwide - which is considered 100% fatal. Carriers of HBV are 200 times more likely to develop liver cancer decades after initial infection. Many people who contract HBV become chronic (and, often, asymptomatic) carriers of the disease while still being contagious to others. HBV is reported to be 100 times more infectious than HIV and, like HIV, is transmitted through blood transfusions, needles, sexual contact, and in utero (from mother to child in the womb). Statistics on HBV are staggering: one out of every 250 Americans are HBV carriers! The Center for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that 200,000 new U.S. cases of HBV infection per year are added to the current estimate of one million carriers in the U.S. (and an estimated 300 million worldwide). The CDC also reports that (in the U.S.) 3,000 - 4,000 annual deaths from cirrhosis and 1,000 deaths from liver cancer are HBV-related. So when Dr. Baruch Blumberg reported that chanca piedra could clear up the chronic carrier state of Hepatitis B in 1988, it was a big deal. Dr. Blumberg was the winner of the 1963 Nobel Prize for discovering the HBV antigen in the first place. This led to the discovery that HBV was the primary cause of liver cancer and initiated the development of HBV vaccines.

    Most of Blumberg's early research was carried out in India in collaboration with an Indian research group. Their first human study reported that a water extract of Phyllanthus amarus cleared the HBV surface antigen from 22 of 37 chronic HBV patients in only 30 days (and they continued to test negative for 9 months, at which time the report was published). This same group had published several earlier in vitro studies as well as animal (woodchuck) studies. (Woodchucks respond to chronic HBV infection in much the same manner as do humans which is why they are chosen for such research). All reported similar and effective anti-HBV effects. By that time, Blumberg was employed with the Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia; he, Fox Chase, and the Indian researchers filed two patents on the plant's ability to treat HBV and its antiviral properties in 1985 and 1988 (now calling the plant P. niruri). The first patent was specific to HBV; the second stated that the plant's antiviral properties were achieved in part through a strong inhibition of reverse transcriptase (chemicals necessary for many types of viruses to grow) which made it possible to treat such retroviruses as HIV and sarcoma and leukemia viruses.

    It was also during this time that the group developed a new and "better" extraction process. This process involved multiple, complicated extractions in which the plant was first soaked in cold water, then the resulting fluid was extracted first in hexane, then in benzene, then in methanol, and back into water. Their documentation revealed, however, that they didn't know specifically what the active chemicals were in the final extract that were providing the antiviral effects! While it was certainly a complicated and patentable process, much of the subsequent published research by this group throughout the 1990s using this new, patented "water extract" conflicted with their earlier studies, and was not as effective in the in vivo research for HBV. This caused much confusion as to whether chanca piedra (P. niruri or P. amarus) was an effective treatment or not. To add to the confusion, in 1994, a New Zealand research group prepared a chemically-altered extract (of P. amarus) which was standardized to the geraniin chemical content (the chemical documented with analgesic and hypotensive properties). They started a double-blind HBV human trial, later discontinued it due to lack of response, and published another negative result study.

    Meanwhile, a separate research group in China (where HBV is wide-spread) working with a straight water extract and/or herb powder published two positive studies showing good results with human HBV patients in 1994 and 1995. Their second study suggested that different results were obtained through different Phyllanthus species of plants used (and that yet another species - P. urinaria provided the best anti-HBV results). The Chinese published a more recent (2001) study which compared 30 chronic HBV patients taking a chanca piedra extract to 25 patients taking interferon (the leading conventional drug used for HBV) for three months. Both treatments showed an equal effectiveness of 83%, but the chanca piedra group rated significantly higher in the normalization of liver enzymes and recovery of liver function than the interferon-treated group. They published yet another study in 2003 which attributed the anti-HVB effects mainly to four chemicals in chanca piedra: niranthin, nirtetralin, hinokinin, and geraniin.

    Finally, The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Research Group in Copenhagen reviewed all the HBV published research (22 randomized trials) and published an independent review of the results. It stated that treatment with "Phyllanthus herb" (they acknowledged the confusion among the various species used) had "a positive effect on clearance of serum HBsAg" (HBV surface antigen) comparable to interferon and was better than nonspecific treatment or other herbal medicines for HBV and liver enzyme normalization." They also indicated that large trials were warranted due to these documented positive effects and the lack of standardization of the research methods and plant species used in the various published studies to date.

    Concerned with HIV specifically, a Japanese research group reported that a simple water extract of P. niruri inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in 1992. (Several conventional drugs used today against HIV are classified as "reverse transcriptase inhibitors.") They attributed this effect to a plant chemical in chanca piedra called repandusinic acid A. When they tested this chemical individually it demonstrated significant toxicity to HIV-1 at very small dosages (a 90% in vitro inhibition using only 2.5 mcg). Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute isolated yet another chemical in chanca piedra with anti-HIV actions-a novel compound that they named niruriside and described in a 1996 study. A German research organization published their first study on chanca piedra and its application with HIV therapy (reporting a 70-75% inhibition of virus) in 2003. In addition to these antiviral properties, the plant has also been documented other antimicrobial effects. Chanca piedra demonstrated in vitro antibacterial actions against Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, and Pasteurella bacteria as well as in vivo and in vitro antimalarial properties, which validates other traditional uses.

    CURRENT PRACTICAL USES

    Chanca piedra is a perfect example of a highly beneficial medicinal plant which is deserving of much more research - but one which is fraught with the typical problems of working with a complicated, chemically-rich plant. Unless a major (and well-funded) pharmaceutical or research company can isolate a single, patentable chemical (or can come up with a patentable extraction process that actually works as well as a simple water extract) to justify the high cost of research, chanca piedra probably will remain in the "unproven herbal remedy" category. There just aren't enough non-profit dollars or government grant funds available to fund research on natural plant extracts that can't be patented. Since chanca piedra's many biological activities and benefits are attributed to many different chemicals (whose synergistic interactions are unclear), and most seem to be completely water soluble (no complicated and patentable manufacturing processes necessary), for-profit research dollars will probably be spent elsewhere. It is yet another perfect example that Mother Nature is infinitely a better chemist; the natural herb continues to work better than any man-made chemically altered (and patentable) extracts.

    But what a natural remedy it is! With its applications for kidney stones and gallstones, cellular and liver protection, hypertension and high cholesterol, cancer prevention, and its pain-relieving and antiviral effects, it is gaining in popularity on many continents as an effective herbal remedy. It's also important to note that in all the research published over the last 20 years, no signs of toxicity or side effects have been reported in any of the human or animal studies, even in acute or chronic use.



    CHANCA PIEDRA PLANT SUMMARY
    Main Preparation Method: infusion

    Main Actions (in order):
    antilithic (prevents and eliminate kidney stones), hepatoprotective (liver protector), diuretic, antihepatotoxic (liver detoxifier), antiviral

    Main Uses:

    1. for kidney stones and gallstones (active stones and as a preventative)
    2. to tone, balance, strengthen, detoxify and protect the liver (and to balance liver enzymes)
    3. for viruses, including hepatitis A, B, and C, herpes, and HIV
    4. to tone, balance, strengthen, detoxify and protect the kidneys and to reduce uric acid and increase urination
    5. for hypertension and high cholesterol levels
    Properties/Actions Documented by Research:
    analgesic (pain-reliever), antiulcerous , antibacterial, antihepatotoxic (liver detoxifier), antilithic (prevents and eliminates kidney stones), antimalarial, antimutagenic (cellular protector), antispasmodic, antiviral, contraceptive, diuretic, gastrototonic (tones, balances, strengthens the gastric system), hepatoprotective (liver protector), hepatotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the liver), hypocholesterolemic (lowers cholesterol), hypoglycemic, hypotensive (lowers blood pressure), uterine relaxant

    Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use:
    anti-inflammatory, blood cleanser, carminative, detoxifier, diaphoretic (promotes sweating), febrifuge (reduces fever), laxative, menstrual stimulant, tonic (tones, balances, strengthens overall body systems), vermifuge (expels worms)

    Cautions: It may increase the effect of diabetic, high blood pressure, and diuretic drugs. Don't use during pregnancy.




    Traditional Remedy: A standard herb infusion or weak decoction is prepared as the traditional remedy. Depending on what it's employed for, 1-3 cups are taken daily. Prevention and health maintenance dosages for kidney stones are reported by practitioners to be 1-3 cups weekly while 3-4 cups daily are used to expel existing stones. Some pharmacies in Brazil and South America sell concentrated fluid extracts or water/glycerine extracts. Depending on the concentration of the extracts, 2-6 ml are taken 2-3 times daily. Since most of the active chemicals are water soluble (and broken down during digestion) 2-3 g in tablets or capsules twice daily can be substituted if desired. Alcohol tinctures have not been traditionally used with chanca piedra (as the more fragile, water-soluble plant chemicals and sterols are thought to be damaged in alcohol). For additional information see instructions for preparing infusions, decoctions and extracts.

    Contraindications:
    • Chanca piedra has demonstrated hypotensive effects in animals and humans. People with a heart condition and/or taking prescription heart medications should consult their doctor before taking this plant. It may be contraindicated for some individuals with heart conditions and/or heart medications may need monitoring and adjusting.
    • Chanca piedra has been considered in herbal medicine to be abortive (at high dosages) as well as a menstrual promoter. While not studied specifically in humans or animals, animal studies do indicate it has uterine relaxant effects. It should therefore be considered contraindicated during pregnancy.
    • Chanca piedra has been documented with female antifertility effects in one mouse study (the effect was reversed 45 days after cessation of dosing). While this effect has not been documented in humans, the use of the plant is probably contraindicated in women seeking pregnancy or taking fertility drugs. This effect has not been substantiated sufficiently to be used as a contraceptive, however, and should not be relied on for such.
    • Chanca piedra has demonstrated hypoglycemic effects in animals and humans. It is contraindicated for people with hypoglycemia. Diabetics should consult their doctor before taking this plant as insulin medications may need monitoring and adjusting.
    • Chanca piedra has been documented in human and animal studies with diuretic effects. Chronic and acute use of this plant may be contraindicated in various other medical conditions where diuretics are not advised. Chronic long-term use of any diuretic can cause electrolyte and mineral imbalances; however, human studies with chanca piedra (for up to three months of chronic use) has not reported any side effects. Consult your doctor if you choose to use this plant chronically for longer than three months concerning possible side effects of long term diuretic use.
    Drug Interactions:
    • May potentiate insulin and antidiabetic drugs.
    • This plant contains a naturally-occurring phytochemical called geraniin. This chemical has been documented with negative chronotropic, negative inotropic, hypotensive and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor effects in animal studies with frogs, mice and rats. As such, this plant may potentiate antihypertensive drugs, beta-blocker drugs and other heart medications (including chronotropic and inotropic drugs)


    WORLDWIDE ETHNOMEDICAL USES
    Amazonia for bowel inflammation, colic, constipation, diabetes, digestion stimulation, dysentery, dyspepsia, edema, fever, flu, gallstones, gonorrhea, intestinal gas, itch, jaundice, kidney aliments, kidney stones, malaria, pain, proctitis, stomachaches, tumor, urinary insufficiency, urinary tract disorders, vaginitis, worms, and to stimulate menstruation
    Bahamas/
    Caribbean
    for bacterial infections, colds, constipation, fever, flu, hypoglycemic, laxative, liver detoxifier, liver tonic, liver protector, spasms, stomachache, typhoid, urinary insufficiency, viral infections, and as an appetite stimulant
    Brazil for abortions, aches (joint), albuminuria, arthritis, bacterial infections, bile stimulant, biliary conditions, bladder problems, bladder stones, blood cleanser, cancer, catarrh (liver and kidney), cystitis, diabetes, digestion stimulation, edema, fever, gallbladder stimulation, gallstones, gastritis, gastrointestinal problems, gout, hepatitis, hypertension, hypoglycemic, inflammation, jaundice, kidney colic, kidney pain, kidney stones, liver support, liver disorders, malaria, obesity, pain, prostatitis, renal colic, renal problems, spasms, tonic, uric acid excess, urinary insufficiency, urinary problems, uterine relaxant, viral infections, and as a muscle relaxant and to promote perspiration
    Haiti for bowel inflammation, colic, digestive problems, digestion stimulation, fever, flu, indigestion, intestinal gas, malaria, spasms, stomachache, urinary insufficiency
    India for anemia, asthma, bronchitis, conjunctivitis, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, digestion stimulation, dysentery, fevers, edema, eye disorders, genitourinary disorders, gonorrhea, hepatitis, jaundice, lack of milk production, menstrual disorders, ringworm, scabies, thirst, tuberculosis, tumor (abdomen), urinary insufficiency, urogenital tract infections, vaginal discharge, warts
    Malaya for caterpillar stings, constipation, dermatosis, diarrhea, itch, menstruation promoter, miscarriage, renal disorders, syphilis, urinary insufficiency, vertigo
    Peru for gallstones, hepatitis, kidney pain, kidney problems, kidney stones, urinary infections, worms, and to stimulate menstruation
    United States for bile insufficiency, bronchitis, diabetes, fever, gallbladder problems, gallstones, gout, hepatitis, hypertension, kidney problems, kidney stones, liver disease, obstructions, pain, uric acid excess, urinary tract infections, viral infections
    Elsewhere for bile insufficiency, bruises, constipation, cough, cuts, diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, edema, eye diseases, fever, gallstones, gonorrhea, itch, jaundice, kidney disease, kidney stones, malaria, menstrual problems, pain, rectitis, stomachache, tuberculosis, urinary insufficiency, urinary tract infections, vaginitis, venereal diseases




    The above text has been printed from The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs by Leslie Taylor, copyrighted © 2005
    All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, including websites, without written permission.

     


    † The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.




    Third-Pary Research Published on Chanca Piedra



    Actions on the Kidneys, Kidney Stones & Uric Acid:
    Boeira, V., et al. "Effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Phyllanthus niruri and its isolated compounds on cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in mouse." Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2011 Sep;384(3):265-75.
    Woottisin, S., et al. "Effects of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus extracts on risk factors for urinary calcium oxalate stones in rats." J Urol. 2011 Jan;185(1):323-8.
    Eweka, A., et al. "Effects of oral administration of Phyllanthus amarus leaf extract on the kidneys of adult wistar rats: a histological study." Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2011;8(3):307-11.
    Boim, M., et al. "Phyllanthus niruri as a promising alternative treatment for nephrolithiasis." Int Braz J Urol. 2010 Nov-Dec;36(6):657-64;
    Adjene, J., et al. "Histological effects of chronic administration of Phyllanthus amarus on the kidney of adult Wistar rat." N Am J Med Sci. 2010 Apr;2(4):193-5.
    Murugaiyah, V., et al. "Mechanisms of antihyperuricemic effect of Phyllanthus niruri and its lignan constituents." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jul; 124(2): 233-9.
    Schuler, T., et al. "Medical expulsive therapy as an adjunct to improve shockwave lithotripsy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis." J. Endourol. 2009; 23(3): 387-93.
    Kieley, S., et al. "Ayurvedic medicine and renal calculi." J. Endourol. 2008; 22(8): 1613-6.
    Wright, C., et al. "Herbal medicines as diuretics: a review of the scientific evidence." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Oct; 114(1) :1-31.
    Murugaiyah V, et al. "Antihyperuricemic lignans from the leaves of Phyllanthus niruri." Planta Med. 2006 Nov; 72(14): 1262-7.
    Micali, S., et al. "Can Phyllanthus niruri affect the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stones? A randomized, prospective, long-term study." J. Urol. 2006 Sep; 176(3): 1020-2.
    Barros, M. E., et al. "Effect of extract of Phyllanthus niruri on crystal deposition in experimental urolithiasis." Urol. Res. 2006 Dec; 34(6): 351-7.
    Nishiura, J. L., et al. “Phyllanthus niruri normalizes elevated urinary calcium levels in calcium stone forming (CSF) patients.” Urol. Res. 2004 Oct; 32(5): 362-6.
    Barros, M. E., et al. “Effects of an aqueous extract from Phyllanthus niruri on calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro.” Urol. Res. 2003; 30(6): 374-9.
    Freitas, A. M., et al. “The effect of Phyllanthus niruri on urinary inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystallization and other factors associated with renal stone formation.” B. J. U. Int. 2002; 89(9): 829–34.
    Campos, A. H., et al. “Phyllanthus niruri inhibits calcium oxalate endocytosis by renal tubular cells: its role in urolithiasis.” Nephron. 1999; 81(4): 393–97.

    Antispasmodic, Pain-Relieving, & Anti-inflammatory Actions:
    Iranloye, B., et al. "Analgesic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus amarus." Afr J Med Med Sci. 2011 Mar;40(1):47-50.
    Obidike, I., et al. "The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of the chloroform fraction from Phyllanthus niruri plant is mediated via the peripheral nervous system." J Diet Suppl. 2010 Dec;7(4):341-50.
    Lai, C., et al. "Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation in human gastric epithelial AGS cells by Phyllanthus urinaria extracts." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Aug; 118(3): 522-6.
    Dirjomuljono, M., et al. "Symptomatic treatment of acute tonsillo-pharyngitis patients with a combination of Nigella sativa and Phyllanthus niruri extract." Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2008; 46(6): 295-306.
    Fang, S., et al. "Anti-oxidant and inflammatory mediator's growth inhibitory effects of compounds isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Mar; 116(2): 333-40.
    Kassuya, C. A., et al. "Antiinflammatory and antiallodynic actions of the lignan niranthin isolated from Phyllanthus amarus. Evidence for interaction with platelet activating factor receptor." Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2006 Sep; 546(1-3): 182-8.
    Iizuka, T., et al. “Vasorelaxant effects of methyl brevifolincarboxylate from the leaves of Phyllanthus niruri.” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 29(1): 177-9.
    Kassuya, C.A., et al. “Anti-inflammatory properties of extracts, fractions and lignans isolated from Phyllanthus amarus.” Planta Med. 2005; 71(8): 721-6.
    Kiemer, A. K., et al. “Phyllanthus amarus has anti-inflammatory potential by inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, and cytokines via the NF-kappaB pathway.” J. Hepatol. 2003; 38(3): 289-97.
    Santos, A. R., et al. “Antinociceptive properties of extracts of new species of plants of the genus Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae).” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 72(1/2): 229–38.
    Miguel, O. G., et al. “Chemical and preliminary analgesic evaluation of geraniin and furosin isolated from Phyllanthus sellowianus.” Planta Med. 1996; 62(2): 146–49.
    Santos, A. R., et al. “Analysis of the mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effect of the extracts of plants from the genus Phyllanthus.Gen. Pharmacol. 1995; 26(7): 1499–1506.
    Santos, A. R., et al. “Further studies on the antinociceptive action of the hydroalcohlic extracts from plants of the genus Phyllanthus.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1995; 47(1): 66–71.
    Santos, A. R., et al. “Analgesic effects of callus culture extracts from selected species of Phyllanthus in mice.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1994; 46(9): 755–59.

    Antiviral Actions:
    Faral-Tello, P., et al. "Cytotoxic, virucidal, and antiviral activity of South American plant and algae extracts." Scientific World Journal. 2012;2012:174837
    Wei, W., et al. "Lignans with anti-hepatitis B virus activities from Phyllanthus niruri L." Phytother Res. 2012 Jul;26(7):964-8.
    Ravikumar, Y., et al. "Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by herbal extract: Phyllanthus amarus as potent natural source." Virus Res. 2011 Jun;158(1-2):89-97
    Cheng, H., et al. "Excoecarianin, isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria Linnea, inhibits Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection through inactivation of viral particles." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2009 Oct 6.
    Dirjomuljono, M., et al. "Symptomatic treatment of acute tonsillo-pharyngitis patients with a combination of Nigella sativa and Phyllanthus niruri extract." Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2008; 46(6): 295-306.
    Yang, C., et al. "The in vitro activity of geraniin and 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria against Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 infection." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Apr; 110(3): 555-8.
    Bagalkotkar, G., et al. "Phytochemicals from Phyllanthus niruri Linn. and their pharmacological properties: a review." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2006 Dec; 58(12): 1559-70.
    Naik, A., et al. "Effects of alkaloidal extract of Phyllanthus niruri on HIV replication." Indian J. Med. Sci. 2003 Sep; 57(9): 387-93.
    Huang, R. L., et al. “Screening of 25 compounds isolated from Phyllanthus species for anti-human hepatitis B virus in vitro.” Phytother. Res. 2003; 17(5): 449-53.
    Liu, J., et al. “Genus Phyllanthus for chronic Hepatitis B virus infection: A systematic review.” Viral Hepat. 2001; 8(5): 358–66.
    Xin-Hua, W., et al. “A comparative study of Phyllanthus amarus compound and interferon in the treatment of chronic viral Hepatitis B.” Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 2001; 32(1): 140–42.
    Wang, M. X., et al. “Herbs of the genus Phyllanthus in the treatment of chronic Hepatitis B: Observation with three preparations from different geographic sites.” J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1995; 126(4): 350–52.
    Wang, M. X., et al. “Observations of the efficacy of Phyllanthus spp. in treating patients with chronic Hepatitis B.” 1994; 19(12): 750–52.
    Thyagarajan, S. P., et al. “Effect of Phyllanthus amarus on chronic carriers of Hepatitis B virus.” Lancet 1988; 2(8614): 764–66.
    Venkateswaran, P. S., et al. “Effects of an extract from Phyllanthus niruri on Hepatitis B and wood chuck hepatitis viruses: in vitro and in vivo studies.” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 1987; 84(1): 274–78.
    Bhumyamalaki, et al. “Phyllanthus niruri and jaundice in children.” J. Natl. Integ. Med. Ass. 1983; 25(8): 269–72.
    Thyagarajan, S. P., et al. “In vitro inactivation of HBsAG by Eclipta alba (Hassk.) and Phyllanthus niruri (Linn.).” Indian J. Med. Res. 1982; 76s: 124–30.
    Notka, F., et al. “Concerted inhibitory activities of Phyllanthus amarus on HIV replication in vitro and ex vivo.” Antiviral Res. 2004 Nov; 64(2): 93-102.
    Notka, F., et al. “Inhibition of wild-type human immunodeficiency virus and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant variants by Phyllanthus amarus.” Antiviral Res. 2003 Apr; 58(2): 175-186.
    Qian-Cutrone, J. “Niruriside, a new HIV REV/RRE binding inhibitor from Phyllanthus niruri.J. Nat. Prod. 1996; 59(2): 196–99.
    Ogata, T., et al. “HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor from Phyllanthus niruri.AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 1992; 8(11): 1937–44.

    Liver Protective, Detoxification & Antioxidant Actions:
    Wong, V., et al. "Treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with Phyllanthus urinaria - A randomized trial." J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Oct 4.
    Londhe, J., et al. "Geraniin and amariin, ellagitannins from Phyllanthus amarus, protect liver cells against ethanol induced cytotoxicity." Fitoterapia. 2012 Dec;83(8):1562-8.
    Amin, Z., et al. "Protective Role of Phyllanthus niruri Extract against Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Cirrhosis in Rat Model." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:241583.
    Srirama, R., et al. "Hepatoprotective activity of Indian Phyllanthus." Pharm Biol. 2012 Aug;50(8):948-53.
    Thakur, J., et al. "Enhancing hepatoprotective bioactives of phyllanthus amarus through immobilization by growth promoters and media changes." Indian J Pharm Sci. 2011 May;73(3):271-5.
    Sharma, S., et al. "Hepatoprotective activity of the Phyllanthus species on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells." Pharmacogn Mag. 2011 Jul;7(27):229-33.
    Surya Narayanan, B., et al. "Protective effects of Phyllanthus amarus on fibrotic markers during alcohol and polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced toxicity." Toxicol Mech Methods. 2011 Jan;21(1):48-52.
    Chirdchupunseree, H., et al. "Protective activity of phyllanthin in ethanol-treated primary culture of rat hepatocytes." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jan 11.
    Krithika, R., et al. "Ameliorative potential of Phyllanthus amarus against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity." Acta Pol. Pharm. 2009 Sep-Oct; 66(5): 579-83.
    Guhu, G., et al. "Aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus inhibits chromium(VI)-induced toxicity in MDA-MB-435S cells." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2009 Oct 27.
    Krithika, R., et al. "Mitigation of carbon tetrachloride-induced damage by Phyllanthus amarus in liver of mice." Acta Pol. Pharm. 2009 Jul-Aug; 66(4): 439-44.
    Hau, D., et al. "Phyllanthus urinaria extract attenuates acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity: involvement of cytochrome P450 CYP2E1." Phytomedicine. 2009 Aug; 16(8): 751-60.
    Krithika, R., et al. "Isolation, characterization and antioxidative effect of phyllanthin against CCl4-induced toxicity in HepG2 cell line." Chem. Biol. Interact. 2009 Oct; 181(3): 351-8.
    Yadav, N., et al. "Synergistic effect of silymarin and standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in Rattus norvegicus." Phytomedicine. 2008 Dec; 15(12): 1053-61.
    Negi, A., et al. "Recent advances in plant hepatoprotectives: a chemical and biological profile of some important leads." Med. Res. Rev. 2008 Sep; 28(5): 746-72.
    Appiah-Opong, R., et al. "Interactions between cytochromes P450, glutathione S-transferases and Ghanaian medicinal plants." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2008; 46(12): 3598-603.
    Manjrekar, A., et al. "Effect of Phyllanthus niruri Linn. treatment on liver, kidney and testes in CCl4 induced hepatotoxic rats." Indian J. Exp Biol. 2008 Jul; 46(7): 514-20.
    Londhe, J., et al. "Antioxidant activity of some polyphenol constituents of the medicinal plant Phyllanthus amarus Linn." Redox. Rep. 2008; 13(5): 199-207.
    Adeneye, A., et al. "Protective effect of the aqueous leaf and seed extract of Phyllanthus amarus on gentamicin and acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jul; 118(2): 318-23.
    Faremi, T., et al. "Hepatoprotective potentials of Phyllanthus amarus against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2008; 46(8): 2658-64.
    Rai, V., et al. "Chromium-induced changes in ultramorphology and secondary metabolites of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn. - an hepatoprotective plant." Environ. Monit. Assess. 2008 Dec; 147(1-3): 307-15.
    Shen, B., et al. "Phyllanthus urinaria ameliorates the severity of nutritional steatohepatitis both in vitro and in vivo." Hepatology. 2008 Feb; 47(2): 473-83.
    Xu, M., et al. "Phenolic antioxidants from the whole plant of Phyllanthus urinaria." Chem. Biodivers. 2007 Sep; 4(9): 2246-52.
    Jaleel, C., et al. "NaCl as a physiological modulator of proline metabolism and antioxidant potential in Phyllanthus amarus." C. R. Biol. 2007; 330(11): 806-13.
    Sarkar, M., et al. "Hepatocytes are protected by herb Phyllanthus niruri protein isolate against thioacetamide toxicity." Pathophysiology. 2007 Oct; 14(2): 113-20.
    Pramyothin, P., et al. "Hepatoprotective activity of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et. Thonn. extract in ethanol treated rats: in vitro and in vivo studies." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Nov; 114(2): 169-73.
    Naaz, F., et al. "Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et Thonn. on aflatoxin B1-induced liver damage in mice." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Sep; 113(3): 503-9.
    Stickel, F., et al. "Herbal medicine in the treatment of liver diseases." Dig. Liver Dis. 2007; 39(4): 293-304.
    Bhattacharjee, R., et al. "Protein isolate from the herb Phyllanthus niruri modulates carbon tetrachloride-induced cytotoxicity in hepatocytes." Toxicol. Mech Methods. 2007; 17(1): 41-7.
    Bhattacharjee, R., et al. Protein isolate from the herb, Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae), plays hepatoprotective role against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage via its antioxidant properties." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2007; 45(5): 817-26.
    Chatterjee, M., et al. "Hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri on nimesulide-induced oxidative stress in vivo." Indian J. Biochem. Biophys. 2006 Oct; 43(5): 299-305.
    Bhattacharjee, R., et al. "The protein fraction of Phyllanthus niruri plays a protective role against acetaminophen induced hepatic disorder via its antioxidant properties." Phytother. Res. 2006; 20(7): 595-601.
    Lee, C. Y., et al. "Hepatoprotective effect of Phyllanthus in Taiwan on acute liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride." Am. J. Chin. Med. 2006; 34(3): 471-82.
    Chatterjee, M., et al. "Herbal (Phyllanthus niruri) protein isolate protects liver from nimesulide induced oxidative stress." Pathophysiology. 2006 May; 13(2): 95-102.
    Khatoon, S., et al. “Comparative pharmacognostic studies of three Phyllanthus species.” 2006 Mar; 104(1-2): 79-86.
    Levy, C., et al. “Use of herbal supplements for chronic liver disease.” Clin. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004; 2(11): 947-56.
    Rajeshkumar, N. V., et al. “Phyllanthus amarus extract administration increases the life span of rats with hepatocellular carcinoma.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov; 73(1–2): 215–19.
    Padma, P., et al. "Protective effect of Phyllanthus fraternus against carbon tetrachloride-induced mitochondrial dysfunction." Life Sci. 1999; 64(25): 2411-17.
    Jeena, K. J., et al. “Effect of Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus and Picrorrhiza kurroa on n-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis.” Cancer Lett. 1999; 136(1): 11–16.
    Thabrew, M. R., et al. “Phytogenic agents in the therapy of liver disease.” Phytother. Res. 1996; 10(6): 461–67.
    Prakash, A., et al. “Comparative hepatoprotective activity of three Phyllanthus species, P. urinaria, P. niruri and P.simplex, on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in the rat.” Phytother. Res. 1995; 9(8): 594–96.
    Dhir, H., et al. “Protection afforded by aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus species against cytotoxicity induced by lead and aluminium salts.” Phytother. Res. 1990; 4(5): 172–76
    Sreenivasa, R. Y. “Experimental production of liver damage and its protection with Phyllanthus niruri and Capparis spinosa (both ingredients of LIV52) in white albino rats.” Probe 1985; 24(2): 117–19.
    Syamasundar, K. V., et al. "Antihepatotoxic principles of Phyllanthus niruri herbs." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1985; 14(1): 41-4.

    Anticancerous & Cellular Protective Actions:
    Lu, K., et al. "Phyllanthus urinaria suppresses human osteosarcoma cell invasion and migration by transcriptionally inhibiting u-PA via ERK and Akt signaling pathways." Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Nov 28.
    Araújo, R., et al. "Growth inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus niruri extracts in combination with cisplatin on cancer cell lines." World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Aug 21;18(31):4162-6168.
    Wu, H, et al. "Phyllanthus urinaria Induces Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma 143B Cells via Activation of Fas/FasL- and Mitochondria-Mediated Pathways." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:925824.
    Tseng, H., et al. "Antimetastatic potentials of Phyllanthus urinaria L on A549 and Lewis lung carcinoma cells via repression of matrix-degrading proteases." Integr Cancer Ther. 2012 Sep;11(3):267-78.
    Thakur, I., et al. "Protection against radiation clastogenecity in mouse bone marrow by Phyllanthus niruri." Indian J Exp Biol. 2011 Sep;49(9):704-10.
    Karuna, R., et al. "Protective effects of Phyllanthus amarus aqueous extract against renal oxidative stress in Streptozotocin -induced diabetic rats." Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 Jul;43(4):414-8.
    Lee, S., et al. "Antimetastatic effects of Phyllanthus on human lung (A549) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines." PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e20994.
    Sharma, P., et al. "Modulatory influence of Phyllanthus niruri on oxidative stress, antioxidant defense and chemically induced skin tumors." J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2011;30(1):43-53.
    Thippeswamy, A., et al. "Protective role of Phyllantus niruri extract in doxorubicin-induced myocardial toxicity in rats." Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 Feb;43(1):31-5.
    Huang, S., et al. "Anti-cancer effects of Phyllanthus urinaria and relevant mechanisms." Chang Gung Med J. 2010 Sep-Oct;33(5):477-87.
    Guhu, G., et al. "Antimycin A-induced mitochondrial apoptotic cascade is mitigated by phenolic constituents of Phyllanthus amarus aqueous extract in Hep3B cells." Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Dec;48(12):3449-57.
    Tang, Y., et al. "Phyllanthus spp. induces selective growth inhibition of PC-3 and MeWo human cancer cells through modulation of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis." PLoS One. 2010 Sep 8;5(9):e12644.
    Sarkar, M., et al. "Prevention of tertiary butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidative impairment and cell death by a novel antioxidant protein molecule isolated from the herb, Phyllanthus niruri." Toxicol In Vitro. 2010 Sep;24(6):1711-9.
    Ng, K., et al. "Anti-angiogenic and cytotoxicity studies of some medicinal plants." Planta Med. 2010 Jun;76(9):935-40.
    Huang, S., et al. "Ellagic acid, the active compound of Phyllanthus urinaria, exerts in vivo anti-angiogenic effect and inhibits MMP-2 activity." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010;
    Harikumar, K., et al. "Inhibition of viral carcinogenesis by Phyllanthus amarus." Integr. Cancer Ther. 2009 Sep; 8(3): 254-60.
    Guhu, G., et al. "Aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus inhibits chromium(VI)-induced toxicity in MDA-MB-435S cells." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2009 Oct 27.
    Londhe, J., et al. "Radioprotective properties of polyphenols from Phyllanthus amarus Linn." J. Radiat. Res. (Tokyo). 2009 Jul; 50(4):303-9.
    Harikumar, K., et al. "Phyllanthus amarus inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in Dalton's lymphoma ascites cells through activation of caspase-3 and downregulation of Bcl-2." Integr. Cancer Ther. 2009 Jun; 8(2): 190-4.
    Chularojmontri, L., et al. "Cytoprotective role of Phyllanthus urinaria L. and glutathione-S transferase Pi in doxorubicin-induced toxicity in H9c2 cells." J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 2009 Jun; 92 Suppl 3: S43-51.
    Huang, S., et al. "Phyllanthus urinaria increases apoptosis and reduces telomerase activity in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells." Forsch. Komplementmed. 2009 Feb; 16(1): 34-40.
    C Jagetia, G. "Radioprotective potential of plants and herbs against the effects of ionizing radiation." J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 2007 Mar; 40(2): 74-81.
    Harikumar, K., et al. An extract of Phyllanthus amarus protects mouse chromosomes and intestine from radiation induced damages." J. Radiat. Res (Tokyo). 2007 Nov; 48(6): 469-76.
    Iizuka, T, et al. "Inhibitory effects of methyl brevifolincarboxylate isolated from Phyllanthus niruri L. on platelet aggregation." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2007; 30(2): 382-4.
    Leite, D. F., et al. "The cytotoxic effect and the multidrug resistance reversing action of lignans from Phyllanthus amarus." Planta Med. 2006 Dec; 72(15): 1353-8.
    Raphael, K. R., et al. "Inhibition of N-Methyl N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induced gastric carcinogenesis by Phyllanthus amarus extract." Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 2006 Apr-Jun; 7(2): 299-302.
    Hari Kumar, K. B., et al . "Inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450) in vitro as well as in vivo by Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 29(7): 1310-3.
    Mellinger, C. G., et al. “Chemical and biological properties of an arabinogalactan from Phyllanthus niruri.J. Nat. Prod. 2005; 68(10): 1479-83.
    Kumar, K. B., et al. “Chemoprotective activity of an extract of Phyllanthus amarus against cyclophosphamide induced toxicity in mice.” Phytomedicine. 2005; 12(6-7): 494-500.
    Raphael, K. R., et al. “Inhibition of experimental gastric lesion and inflammation by Phyllanthus amarus extract.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 87(2-3): 193-7.
    Rajeshkumar, N. V. "Antitumour and anticarcinogenic activity of Phyllanthus amarus extract." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 81(1): 17-22.
    Sripanidkulchai, B., et al. “Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of Phyllanthus amarus.Phytomedicine 2002; 9(1): 26–32.
    Devi, P. U. “Radioprotective effect of Phyllanthus niruri on mouse chromosomes.” Curr. Sci. 2000; 78(10): 1245–47.
    Souza, C. R., et al. “Compounds extracted from Phyllanthus and Jatropha elliptica inhibit the binding of [3H]glutamate and [3H]GMP-PNP in rat cerebral cortex membrane.” Neurochem. Res. 2000; 25(2): 211–15.

    Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Cholesterol & Hypotensive Actions:
    Adeneye, A. "The leaf and seed aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus improves insulin resistance diabetes in experimental animal studies." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Dec 18;144(3):705-11.
    Patel, K., et al. "Effect of Atibalamula and Bhumyamalaki on thirty-three patients of diabetic neuropathy." Ayu. 2011 Jul;32(3):353-6.
    Karuna, R., et al. "Protective effects of Phyllanthus amarus aqueous extract against renal oxidative stress in Streptozotocin -induced diabetic rats." Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 Jul;43(4):414-8.
    Okoli, C., et al. "Studies on the possible mechanisms of antidiabetic activity of extract of aerial parts of Phyllanthus niruri." Pharm Biol. 2011 Mar;49(3):248-55.
    Tamil, I., et al. "In vitro study on alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of an Indian medicinal plant, Phyllanthus amarus." Indian J Pharmacol. 2010 Oct;42(5):280-2.
    Gunawan-Puteri, M., et al. "alpha-Amylase inhibitors from an Indonesian medicinal herb, Phyllanthus urinaria." J Sci Food Agric. 2011 Sep 23.
    Latha, P., et al. "Protective effect of Phyllanthus niruri on alcohol and heated sunflower oil induced hyperlipidemia in Wistar rats." Toxicol Mech Methods. 2010 Oct;20(8):498-503.
    Lin, S., et al. "Antioxidant, anti-semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, and anti-hypertensive activities of geraniin isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2008; 46(7): 2485-92.
    Modak, M., et al. "Indian herbs and herbal drugs used for the treatment of diabetes." J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 2007 May; 40(3): 163-73.
    Amaechina, F., et al. "Hypotensive effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thonn (Euphorbiaceae)." Acta Pol. Pharm. 2007 Nov-Dec; 64(6): 547-52.
    Adeneye, A. A., et al. "Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities of the aqueous leaf and seed extract of Phyllanthus amarus in mice." Fitoterapia. 2006 Dec; 77(7-8): 511-4.
    Ali, H., et al. "alpha-Amylase inhibitory activity of some Malaysian plants used to treat diabetes; with particular reference to Phyllanthus amarus." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Oct; 107(3): 449-55.
    Raphael, K. R., et al. “Hypoglycemic effect of methanol extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats and its relation with antioxidant potential.” Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2002; 40(8): 905-9.
    Khanna, A. K., et al. "Lipid lowering activity of Phyllanthus niruri in hyperlipemic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 82(1): 19-22.
    Srividya, N., et al. “Diuretic, hypotensive and hypoglycaemic effect of Phyllanthus amarus.Indian J. Exp. Biol. 1995; 33(11): 861–64.
    Shimizu, M., et al. “Studies on aldose reductase inhibitors from natural products. II. Active components of a Paraguayan crude drug, ‘paraparai mi,’ Phyllanthus niruri.Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 1989; 37(9): 2531–32.
    Umarani, D., et al. “Ethanol induced metabolic alterations and the effect of Phyllanthus niruri in their reversal.” Ancient Sci. Life 1985; 4(3): 174–80.
    Ramakrishnan, P. N., et al. “Oral hypoglycaemic effect of Phyllanthus niruri (Linn.) leaves.” Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 1982; 44(1): 10–12.

    Immunomodulatory Actions:
    Chowdhury, S., et al. "The lignan niranthin poisons Leishmania donovani topoisomerase IB and favours a Th1 immune response in mice." EMBO Mol Med. 2012 Oct;4(10):1126-43.
    Jatan, I., et al. "Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants." J Nat Med. 2011 Apr;65(2):400-5.
    Nworu, C., et al. "The effects of Phyllanthus niruri aqueous extract on the activation of murine lymphocytes and bone marrow-derived macrophages." Immunol Invest. 2010 Jan;39(3):245-67.
    Mellinger, C., et al. "Chemical and immunological modifications of an arabinogalactan present in tea preparations of Phyllanthus niruri after treatment with gastric fluid." Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2008 Aug; 43(2): 115-20.

    Antiparasitic, Antimalarial, Wound-Healing, & Other Antimicrobial Actions:
    Amin, Z., et al. "Assessment of in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and immune activation potentials of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Phyllanthus niruri." J Sci Food Agric. 2012 Jul;92(9):1874-7
    Ranilla, L, et al. "Antimicrobial activity of an Amazon medicinal plant (Chancapiedra) (Phyllanthus niruri L.) against Helicobacter pylori and lactic acid bacteria." Phytother Res. 2012 Jun;26(6):791-9.
    Narayanan, A., et al. "Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India." Benef Microbes. 2011 Sep;2(3):235-43.
    Chowdhury, S., et al. "The lignan niranthin poisons Leishmania donovani topoisomerase IB and favours a Th1 immune response in mice." EMBO Mol Med. 2012 Oct;4(10):1126-43.
    Keluskar, P., et al. "Ethnopharmacology guided screening of traditional Indian herbs for selective inhibition of Plasmodium specific lactate dehydrogenase." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Oct 31;144(1):201-7.
    Kamaraj, C., et al. "Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants traditionally used in the villages of Dharmapuri regions of South India." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Jun 14;141(3):796-802
    Appiah-Opong, R., et al. "Antiplasmodial activity of extracts of Tridax procumbens and Phyllanthus amarus in in vitro Plasmodium falciparum culture systems." Ghana Med J. 2011 Dec;45(4):143-50.
    Yerbanga, R. et al. "Antimalarial plant remedies from Burkina Faso: their potential for prophylactic use." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Mar 27;140(2):255-60.
    Venkatesalu, V., et al. "In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of some traditionally used medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum." Parasitol Res. 2012 Jul;111(1):497-501.
    Ajala, T., et al. "The antiplasmodial effect of the extracts and formulated capsules of Phyllanthus amarus on Plasmodium yoelii infection in mice." Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011 Apr;4(4):283-7.
    Rahuman, A., et al. "Larvicidal activity of some Euphorbiaceae plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)." Parasitol. Res. 2008 Apr; 102(5): 867-73.
    Dapper, D., et al. "Antiplasmodial effects of the aqueous extract of Phyllantus amarus Schumach and Thonn against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice." Niger. J. Physiol. Sci. 2007 Jun-Dec; 22(1-2): 19-25.
    Okigbo, R., et al. "Antimicrobial effects of Piper guineense 'Uziza' and Phyllantus amarus 'Ebe-benizo' on Candida albicans and Streptococcus faecalis." Acta Microbiol. Immunol. Hung. 2007 Dec; 54(4): 353-66.
    Traoré, M., et al. "In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity of 'saye', an herbal remedy used in Burkina Faso traditional medicine." Phytother. Res. 2008; 22(4): 550-1.
    Shakil, N., et al. "Nematicidal prenylated flavanones from Phyllanthus niruri." Phytochemistry. 2008 Feb; 69(3): 759-64.
    Mustofa, S., et al. "In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of extracts of Phyllanthus niruri L. herbs traditionally used to treat malaria in Indonesia." Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health. 2007 Jul; 38(4): 609-15.
    Mazumder, A., et al. "Antimicrobial potentiality of Phyllanthus amarus against drug resistant pathogens." Nat. Prod. Res. 2006; 20(4):323-6.
    Devi, V., et al. "Effect of Phyllanthus niruri on wound healing in rats." Indian J. Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 Oct-Dec; 49(4): 487-90.
    Kolodziej, H., et al. "Tannins and related compounds induce nitric oxide synthase and cytokines gene expressions in Leishmania major-infected macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells." Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2005 Dec; 13(23): 6470-6.
    Subeki, S., et al. "Anti-babesial and anti-plasmodial compounds from Phyllanthus niruri." J. Nat. Prod. 2005; 68(4): 537-9.
    Kloucek, P., et al. “Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Calleria District.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jun; 99(2): 309-12.
    Cimanga, R. K., et al. “In vitro antiplasmodial activity of callus culture extracts and fractions from fresh apical stems of Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae): part 2.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec; 95(2-3): 399-404.
    Agrawal, A., et al. “Evaluation of inhibitory effect of the plant Phyllanthus amarus against dermatophytic fungi Microsporum gypseum.” Biomed. Environ. Sci. 2004 Sep; 17(3): 359-65.
    Tona, L., et al. “In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jul; 93(1): 27-32.
    Mesia, L. T. K., et al. “In-vitro antimalarial activity of Cassia occidentalis, Morinda morindoides and Phyllanthus niruri.Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 2001; 95(1): 47–57.
    Tona, L., et al. “Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 68(1/3): 193–203.
    Farouk, A., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of certain Sudanese plants used in folkloric medicine. Screening for antibacterial activity (I).” Fitoterapia 1983; 54(1): 3–7.

    Non-Toxic Actions:
    Asare, G. et al. "Genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and toxicological evaluation of whole plant extracts of the medicinal plant Phyllanthus niruri (Phyllanthaceae)." Genet Mol Res. 2012 Jan 13;11(1):100-11.
    Asare, G. et al. "Acute toxicity studies of aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus niruri." Interdiscip Toxicol. 2011 Dec;4(4):206-10.

    Possible Herb-Drug Interactions:
    Taesotikul, T., et al. "Effects of Phyllanthus amarus on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam and cytochrome P450 activities in rats." Xenobiotica. 2012 Jul;42(7):641-8.
    Taesotikul, T., et al. "Inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus amarus and its major lignans on human microsomal cytochrome P450 activities: evidence for CYP3A4 mechanism-based inhibition." Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2011;26(2):154-61.


    REFERENCED QUOTES

    1. "Quebra Pedra has been historically used to clear obstruction throughout the system by promoting the elimination of mucous and calculi (kidney stones). It is believed to strengthen and fortify liver and gall bladder function by stimulating the production of bile. It is useful for hepatitis and other liver maladies. It acts as a diuretic, helps afflictions of the urinary system, stimulates the elimination of uric acid and is used to treat urinary tract infections. It has also been found helpful for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, bronchitis, and fever."

    2. "Quebra-pedra fortifies the liver and gallbladder and helps clear system obstructions. It helps with viruses of the reproductive organs and hepatitis. It is an immune system stimulator. It helps eliminate mucous and stones from the kidney, gallbladder and urinary tracts. It also increases bile production, soothes the liver and disperses calcification."

    3. "ACTIONS: Dispels mucus, Tonifies liver and gallbladder, Combats viral infections of reproductive system, Dispels calcification. TRADITIONAL USE: Fortifies liver and gallbladder. Clears obstruction throughout the system. Used to combat viral infections afflicting the reproductive organs. Researchers suggest it is effective in disorders of the liver, such as hepatitis B and immune dysfunctions. Helps eliminate mucus and calculi from kidney, gallbladder, and urinary tracts. Stimulates the secretion of bile, and encourages efficient liver function. MERIDIAN INDICATIONS: Disperses damp heat, Invigorates Liver Qi, Harmonizes Middle Burner, Increases bile. EVA POINTS: Liver, Gallbladder, Kidney"

    10. ""Phyllanthus niruri L. Euphorbiaceae. "Chanca piedra", "Sacha foster", "Stonebreaker". Like other species, quite effective in eliminating kidney- and gallstones (NIC). Considered anodyne, apertif, carminative, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, laxative, stomachic, tonic and vermifuge, used elsewhere for blennorrhagia, colic, diabetes, dropsy, dysentery, dyspepsia, fever, flu, gonorrhea, itch, jaundice, kidney ailments, malaria, proctitis, stomachache, tenesmus, tumors and vaginitis (DAW). Plant has proven antihepatotoxic, antispasmodic, antiviral, bactericidal, diuretic, febrifugal, and hypoglycemic activity (TRA)."

    12. "The pitirishi (P niruri) is widely recognized as a diuretic used in the treatment of urinary tract infections as well as fevers. In Brazil, a tea made from the whole plant is a folk treatment for painful kidneys . In the Bahamas, it goes by the name hurricane weed, or gale-wind grass. The locals boil this bitter-tasting plant to make a tea to treat poor appetite, constipation, typhoid fever, and, provided the patient doesn't have an upset stomach, flu and colds. P niruri has attracted world medical attention after significantly inhibiting replication of the hepatitis B virus, a slow-acting pathogen linked to liver cancer that is now carried by some 300 to 500 million people worldwide. Could an herbal medicine help? That was the question posed by a group at the Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia, where a massive search of the world's herbal literature was initiated for plants used against jaundice (acute hepatitis) and other liver diseases. Phyllanthus turned up as one of the most promising for follow-up. The hope for Phyllanthus is to provide an abundantly available nontoxic alternative not only to treat the disease, but ideally to render carriers sero-negative for the virus so they won't pass it on to others. Combined with vaccines, Phyllanthus, or perhaps other herbs combined, might make a significant contribution to the eradication of viral hepatitis. In Peru, the most common name for P niruri is chanca piedra, meaning "shatter stone." More than one physician there has prescribed the feathery-leafed herb to cure kidney stones and gallstones, problems from which the plant takes its common name and for which the remedy is regarded infallible This herb is now available in the United States as quebra pedra or chanca pedra ("stonebreaker"), the more common names in Brazil."

    17. "One of the people who looked me up was a Dr. Wolfram Wiemann, who came to Iquitos to buy medicinal materials for his store in Nuremberg, Germany. The chief purpose of his trip was to replenish his stock of chanca peidra (Phyllanthus niruri), which he considered a most important cure for gallstones and kidney stones. The plant loses none of its effectiveness when dried, so it can be shipped anywhere. Dr. Weimann kept careful records of all his sales, and he told me that he had over a hundred case histories of this one. In ninety-four percent of these, chanca peidra had completely eliminiated the calculi within a week or two; the other six percent were people who did not keep the required promise to report results or those he had been unable to locate after they failed to show up. According to his records, not only was the herb infallibly successful in healing, but the only evidence of any side effect was an occasional case of cramps during the expulsion of stone. Dr. Weimann believed the healing to be permanent. His description of the effects of chanca peidra duplicated first-hand accounts I had received from acquaintances who had used it, and also the information given me long ago by my own Iquitos physician, Dr. Gil Villacorta. He told me he had been prescribing it for years and had never known it to fail or to cause any unpleasant side effects."

    19. "quebra pedra, uncultivated herb of doorway gardens MED09: Medicinal uses: treats kidney stones. A tea from the shrub ita-mira 'kidney stone-tree' is made from the leaves of Phyllanthus urinaria (which is not a tree, but a small herb) for treating kidney stones (ITA) and kidney infections in general. This species and several of its conspecifics are widely used in Brazil and Amazonia by rural people for the same purposes. Recent research suggests that the anti-spasmodic effect of certain (as yet unidentified) substances in Phyllanthus may be responsible for a genuinely remedial effect with regard to kidney stones; these species also appear to be effective against viral hepatitis (Sousa, et al. 1991:377-378)."




    * The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.




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    Last updated 12-28-2012