Chanca Piedra Herb Powder - Phyllanthus niruri - Chanca Piedra Herb Powder - Phyllanthus niruri - Chanca Piedra Herb Powder - Phyllanthus niruri Chanca Piedra Powder

Phyllanthus niruri

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Chanca piedra means "stone breaker" throughout South America and the Amazon and it is widely used in South America for kidney stones and gallstones.* For more information about Chanca Piedra (Phyllanthus niruri), please refer to the Database File for Chanca Piedra in the Tropical Plant Database. More information can also be found in the new Antimicrobial Guide. To see pictures of chanca piedra, click here. Check out the new Discussion Forums to see if anyone is talking about how they are using this natural rainforest remedy.

Traditional Uses:* for kidney stones and gallstones (active stones and as a preventative); to tone, balance, strengthen, detoxify and protect the kidneys and to reduce uric acid and increase urination; to tone, balance, strengthen, detoxify, and protect the liver (and to balance liver enzymes)

Suggested Use: This plant is best prepared as an infusion (tea): Use one teaspoon of powder for each cup of water. Pour boiling water over herb in cup and allow to steep 10 minutes. Strain tea (or allow settled powder to remain in the bottom of cup) and drink warm. It is traditionally taken in 1 cup dosages, 2-3 times daily. For more complete instructions on preparing herbal infusions see the Methods for Preparing Herbal Remedies Page.

Contraindications: None reported.

Drug Interactions: None reported; however, it might potentiate antihypertensive and diabetic drugs.

Other Observations:

  • Chanca piedra has been documented to reduce blood pressure in animal studies. Individuals with low blood pressure should be monitored for this possible effect.
  • Chanca piedra has been documented with female antifertility effects in one mouse study. The use of the plant is probably contraindicated in women seeking pregnancy.
  • This plant has demonstrated hypoglycemic activity in animal studies. Individuals with hypoglycemia should be monitored more closely for this possible effect.




Third-Party Published Research*

All available third-party research on chanca piedra can be found at PubMed/Medline. A partial listing of the published research on chanca piedra is shown below:

Actions on the Kidneys, Kidney Stones & Uric Acid:
Boeira, V., et al. "Effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Phyllanthus niruri and its isolated compounds on cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in mouse." Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2011 Sep;384(3):265-75.
Woottisin, S., et al. "Effects of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus extracts on risk factors for urinary calcium oxalate stones in rats." J Urol. 2011 Jan;185(1):323-8.
Eweka, A., et al. "Effects of oral administration of Phyllanthus amarus leaf extract on the kidneys of adult wistar rats: a histological study." Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2011;8(3):307-11.
Boim, M., et al. "Phyllanthus niruri as a promising alternative treatment for nephrolithiasis." Int Braz J Urol. 2010 Nov-Dec;36(6):657-64;
Adjene, J., et al. "Histological effects of chronic administration of Phyllanthus amarus on the kidney of adult Wistar rat." N Am J Med Sci. 2010 Apr;2(4):193-5.
Murugaiyah, V., et al. "Mechanisms of antihyperuricemic effect of Phyllanthus niruri and its lignan constituents." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jul; 124(2): 233-9.
Schuler, T., et al. "Medical expulsive therapy as an adjunct to improve shockwave lithotripsy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis." J. Endourol. 2009; 23(3): 387-93.
Kieley, S., et al. "Ayurvedic medicine and renal calculi." J. Endourol. 2008; 22(8): 1613-6.
Wright, C., et al. "Herbal medicines as diuretics: a review of the scientific evidence." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Oct; 114(1) :1-31.
Murugaiyah V, et al. "Antihyperuricemic lignans from the leaves of Phyllanthus niruri." Planta Med. 2006 Nov; 72(14): 1262-7.
Micali, S., et al. "Can Phyllanthus niruri affect the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stones? A randomized, prospective, long-term study." J. Urol. 2006 Sep; 176(3): 1020-2.
Barros, M. E., et al. "Effect of extract of Phyllanthus niruri on crystal deposition in experimental urolithiasis." Urol. Res. 2006 Dec; 34(6): 351-7.
Nishiura, J. L., et al. “Phyllanthus niruri normalizes elevated urinary calcium levels in calcium stone forming (CSF) patients.” Urol. Res. 2004 Oct; 32(5): 362-6.
Barros, M. E., et al. “Effects of an aqueous extract from Phyllanthus niruri on calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro.” Urol. Res. 2003; 30(6): 374-9.
Freitas, A. M., et al. “The effect of Phyllanthus niruri on urinary inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystallization and other factors associated with renal stone formation.” B. J. U. Int. 2002; 89(9): 829–34.
Campos, A. H., et al. “Phyllanthus niruri inhibits calcium oxalate endocytosis by renal tubular cells: its role in urolithiasis.” Nephron. 1999; 81(4): 393–97.

Antispasmodic, Pain-Relieving, & Anti-inflammatory Actions:
Iranloye, B., et al. "Analgesic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus amarus." Afr J Med Med Sci. 2011 Mar;40(1):47-50.
Obidike, I., et al. "The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of the chloroform fraction from Phyllanthus niruri plant is mediated via the peripheral nervous system." J Diet Suppl. 2010 Dec;7(4):341-50.
Lai, C., et al. "Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation in human gastric epithelial AGS cells by Phyllanthus urinaria extracts." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Aug; 118(3): 522-6.
Dirjomuljono, M., et al. "Symptomatic treatment of acute tonsillo-pharyngitis patients with a combination of Nigella sativa and Phyllanthus niruri extract." Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2008; 46(6): 295-306.
Fang, S., et al. "Anti-oxidant and inflammatory mediator's growth inhibitory effects of compounds isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Mar; 116(2): 333-40.
Kassuya, C. A., et al. "Antiinflammatory and antiallodynic actions of the lignan niranthin isolated from Phyllanthus amarus. Evidence for interaction with platelet activating factor receptor." Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2006 Sep; 546(1-3): 182-8.
Iizuka, T., et al. “Vasorelaxant effects of methyl brevifolincarboxylate from the leaves of Phyllanthus niruri.” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 29(1): 177-9.
Kassuya, C.A., et al. “Anti-inflammatory properties of extracts, fractions and lignans isolated from Phyllanthus amarus.” Planta Med. 2005; 71(8): 721-6.
Kiemer, A. K., et al. “Phyllanthus amarus has anti-inflammatory potential by inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, and cytokines via the NF-kappaB pathway.” J. Hepatol. 2003; 38(3): 289-97.
Santos, A. R., et al. “Antinociceptive properties of extracts of new species of plants of the genus Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae).” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 72(1/2): 229–38.
Miguel, O. G., et al. “Chemical and preliminary analgesic evaluation of geraniin and furosin isolated from Phyllanthus sellowianus.” Planta Med. 1996; 62(2): 146–49.
Santos, A. R., et al. “Analysis of the mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effect of the extracts of plants from the genus Phyllanthus.Gen. Pharmacol. 1995; 26(7): 1499–1506.
Santos, A. R., et al. “Further studies on the antinociceptive action of the hydroalcohlic extracts from plants of the genus Phyllanthus.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1995; 47(1): 66–71.
Santos, A. R., et al. “Analgesic effects of callus culture extracts from selected species of Phyllanthus in mice.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1994; 46(9): 755–59.

Antiviral Actions:
In over 20 laboratory tests in animals and in humans, chanca piedra has shown significant antiviral effects against Hepatitis B (HBV) and most recently, Hepatitis C. Not only has it been reported to provide a direct antiviral effect, it has also been reported to clear the surface antigen from chronic Hepatitis B carriers. A Japanese research group reported that a simple water extract of chanca piedra inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in 1992. They attributed this effect to a plant chemical in chanca piedra called repan-dusinic acid A. When they tested this chemical individually it demonstrated significant toxicity to HIV-1 at very small dosages (a 90% in vitro inhibition using only 2.5 mcg). Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute isolated yet another chemical in chanca piedra with anti-HIV actions—a novel compound that they named niruriside and described in a 1996 study. A German research organization published their first study on chanca piedra and its application with HIV therapy (reporting a 70-75% inhibition of viral replication) in 2003.
Faral-Tello, P., et al. "Cytotoxic, virucidal, and antiviral activity of South American plant and algae extracts." Scientific World Journal. 2012;2012:174837
Wei, W., et al. "Lignans with anti-hepatitis B virus activities from Phyllanthus niruri L." Phytother Res. 2012 Jul;26(7):964-8.
Ravikumar, Y., et al. "Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by herbal extract: Phyllanthus amarus as potent natural source." Virus Res. 2011 Jun;158(1-2):89-97
Cheng, H., et al. "Excoecarianin, isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria Linnea, inhibits Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection through inactivation of viral particles." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2009 Oct 6.
Dirjomuljono, M., et al. "Symptomatic treatment of acute tonsillo-pharyngitis patients with a combination of Nigella sativa and Phyllanthus niruri extract." Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2008; 46(6): 295-306.
Yang, C., et al. "The in vitro activity of geraniin and 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria against Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 infection." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Apr; 110(3): 555-8.
Bagalkotkar, G., et al. "Phytochemicals from Phyllanthus niruri Linn. and their pharmacological properties: a review." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2006 Dec; 58(12): 1559-70.
Naik, A., et al. "Effects of alkaloidal extract of Phyllanthus niruri on HIV replication." Indian J. Med. Sci. 2003 Sep; 57(9): 387-93.
Huang, R. L., et al. “Screening of 25 compounds isolated from Phyllanthus species for anti-human hepatitis B virus in vitro.” Phytother. Res. 2003; 17(5): 449-53.
Liu, J., et al. “Genus Phyllanthus for chronic Hepatitis B virus infection: A systematic review.” Viral Hepat. 2001; 8(5): 358–66.
Xin-Hua, W., et al. “A comparative study of Phyllanthus amarus compound and interferon in the treatment of chronic viral Hepatitis B.” Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 2001; 32(1): 140–42.
Wang, M. X., et al. “Herbs of the genus Phyllanthus in the treatment of chronic Hepatitis B: Observation with three preparations from different geographic sites.” J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1995; 126(4): 350–52.
Wang, M. X., et al. “Observations of the efficacy of Phyllanthus spp. in treating patients with chronic Hepatitis B.” 1994; 19(12): 750–52.
Thyagarajan, S. P., et al. “Effect of Phyllanthus amarus on chronic carriers of Hepatitis B virus.” Lancet 1988; 2(8614): 764–66.
Venkateswaran, P. S., et al. “Effects of an extract from Phyllanthus niruri on Hepatitis B and wood chuck hepatitis viruses: in vitro and in vivo studies.” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 1987; 84(1): 274–78.
Bhumyamalaki, et al. “Phyllanthus niruri and jaundice in children.” J. Natl. Integ. Med. Ass. 1983; 25(8): 269–72.
Thyagarajan, S. P., et al. “In vitro inactivation of HBsAG by Eclipta alba (Hassk.) and Phyllanthus niruri (Linn.).” Indian J. Med. Res. 1982; 76s: 124–30.
Notka, F., et al. “Concerted inhibitory activities of Phyllanthus amarus on HIV replication in vitro and ex vivo.” Antiviral Res. 2004 Nov; 64(2): 93-102.
Notka, F., et al. “Inhibition of wild-type human immunodeficiency virus and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant variants by Phyllanthus amarus.” Antiviral Res. 2003 Apr; 58(2): 175-186.
Qian-Cutrone, J. “Niruriside, a new HIV REV/RRE binding inhibitor from Phyllanthus niruri.J. Nat. Prod. 1996; 59(2): 196–99.
Ogata, T., et al. “HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor from Phyllanthus niruri.AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 1992; 8(11): 1937–44.

Liver Protective, Detoxification & Antioxidant Actions:
Wong, V., et al. "Treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with Phyllanthus urinaria - A randomized trial." J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Oct 4.
Londhe, J., et al. "Geraniin and amariin, ellagitannins from Phyllanthus amarus, protect liver cells against ethanol induced cytotoxicity." Fitoterapia. 2012 Dec;83(8):1562-8.
Amin, Z., et al. "Protective Role of Phyllanthus niruri Extract against Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Cirrhosis in Rat Model." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:241583.
Srirama, R., et al. "Hepatoprotective activity of Indian Phyllanthus." Pharm Biol. 2012 Aug;50(8):948-53.
Thakur, J., et al. "Enhancing hepatoprotective bioactives of phyllanthus amarus through immobilization by growth promoters and media changes." Indian J Pharm Sci. 2011 May;73(3):271-5.
Sharma, S., et al. "Hepatoprotective activity of the Phyllanthus species on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells." Pharmacogn Mag. 2011 Jul;7(27):229-33.
Surya Narayanan, B., et al. "Protective effects of Phyllanthus amarus on fibrotic markers during alcohol and polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced toxicity." Toxicol Mech Methods. 2011 Jan;21(1):48-52.
Chirdchupunseree, H., et al. "Protective activity of phyllanthin in ethanol-treated primary culture of rat hepatocytes." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jan 11.
Krithika, R., et al. "Ameliorative potential of Phyllanthus amarus against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity." Acta Pol. Pharm. 2009 Sep-Oct; 66(5): 579-83.
Guhu, G., et al. "Aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus inhibits chromium(VI)-induced toxicity in MDA-MB-435S cells." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2009 Oct 27.
Krithika, R., et al. "Mitigation of carbon tetrachloride-induced damage by Phyllanthus amarus in liver of mice." Acta Pol. Pharm. 2009 Jul-Aug; 66(4): 439-44.
Hau, D., et al. "Phyllanthus urinaria extract attenuates acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity: involvement of cytochrome P450 CYP2E1." Phytomedicine. 2009 Aug; 16(8): 751-60.
Krithika, R., et al. "Isolation, characterization and antioxidative effect of phyllanthin against CCl4-induced toxicity in HepG2 cell line." Chem. Biol. Interact. 2009 Oct; 181(3): 351-8.
Yadav, N., et al. "Synergistic effect of silymarin and standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in Rattus norvegicus." Phytomedicine. 2008 Dec; 15(12): 1053-61.
Negi, A., et al. "Recent advances in plant hepatoprotectives: a chemical and biological profile of some important leads." Med. Res. Rev. 2008 Sep; 28(5): 746-72.
Appiah-Opong, R., et al. "Interactions between cytochromes P450, glutathione S-transferases and Ghanaian medicinal plants." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2008; 46(12): 3598-603.
Manjrekar, A., et al. "Effect of Phyllanthus niruri Linn. treatment on liver, kidney and testes in CCl4 induced hepatotoxic rats." Indian J. Exp Biol. 2008 Jul; 46(7): 514-20.
Londhe, J., et al. "Antioxidant activity of some polyphenol constituents of the medicinal plant Phyllanthus amarus Linn." Redox. Rep. 2008; 13(5): 199-207.
Adeneye, A., et al. "Protective effect of the aqueous leaf and seed extract of Phyllanthus amarus on gentamicin and acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jul; 118(2): 318-23.
Faremi, T., et al. "Hepatoprotective potentials of Phyllanthus amarus against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2008; 46(8): 2658-64.
Rai, V., et al. "Chromium-induced changes in ultramorphology and secondary metabolites of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn. - an hepatoprotective plant." Environ. Monit. Assess. 2008 Dec; 147(1-3): 307-15.
Shen, B., et al. "Phyllanthus urinaria ameliorates the severity of nutritional steatohepatitis both in vitro and in vivo." Hepatology. 2008 Feb; 47(2): 473-83.
Xu, M., et al. "Phenolic antioxidants from the whole plant of Phyllanthus urinaria." Chem. Biodivers. 2007 Sep; 4(9): 2246-52.
Jaleel, C., et al. "NaCl as a physiological modulator of proline metabolism and antioxidant potential in Phyllanthus amarus." C. R. Biol. 2007; 330(11): 806-13.
Sarkar, M., et al. "Hepatocytes are protected by herb Phyllanthus niruri protein isolate against thioacetamide toxicity." Pathophysiology. 2007 Oct; 14(2): 113-20.
Pramyothin, P., et al. "Hepatoprotective activity of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et. Thonn. extract in ethanol treated rats: in vitro and in vivo studies." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Nov; 114(2): 169-73.
Naaz, F., et al. "Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et Thonn. on aflatoxin B1-induced liver damage in mice." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Sep; 113(3): 503-9.
Stickel, F., et al. "Herbal medicine in the treatment of liver diseases." Dig. Liver Dis. 2007; 39(4): 293-304.
Bhattacharjee, R., et al. "Protein isolate from the herb Phyllanthus niruri modulates carbon tetrachloride-induced cytotoxicity in hepatocytes." Toxicol. Mech Methods. 2007; 17(1): 41-7.
Bhattacharjee, R., et al. Protein isolate from the herb, Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae), plays hepatoprotective role against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage via its antioxidant properties." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2007; 45(5): 817-26.
Chatterjee, M., et al. "Hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri on nimesulide-induced oxidative stress in vivo." Indian J. Biochem. Biophys. 2006 Oct; 43(5): 299-305.
Bhattacharjee, R., et al. "The protein fraction of Phyllanthus niruri plays a protective role against acetaminophen induced hepatic disorder via its antioxidant properties." Phytother. Res. 2006; 20(7): 595-601.
Lee, C. Y., et al. "Hepatoprotective effect of Phyllanthus in Taiwan on acute liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride." Am. J. Chin. Med. 2006; 34(3): 471-82.
Chatterjee, M., et al. "Herbal (Phyllanthus niruri) protein isolate protects liver from nimesulide induced oxidative stress." Pathophysiology. 2006 May; 13(2): 95-102.
Khatoon, S., et al. “Comparative pharmacognostic studies of three Phyllanthus species.” 2006 Mar; 104(1-2): 79-86.
Levy, C., et al. “Use of herbal supplements for chronic liver disease.” Clin. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004; 2(11): 947-56.
Rajeshkumar, N. V., et al. “Phyllanthus amarus extract administration increases the life span of rats with hepatocellular carcinoma.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov; 73(1–2): 215–19.
Padma, P., et al. "Protective effect of Phyllanthus fraternus against carbon tetrachloride-induced mitochondrial dysfunction." Life Sci. 1999; 64(25): 2411-17.
Jeena, K. J., et al. “Effect of Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus and Picrorrhiza kurroa on n-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis.” Cancer Lett. 1999; 136(1): 11–16.
Thabrew, M. R., et al. “Phytogenic agents in the therapy of liver disease.” Phytother. Res. 1996; 10(6): 461–67.
Prakash, A., et al. “Comparative hepatoprotective activity of three Phyllanthus species, P. urinaria, P. niruri and P.simplex, on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in the rat.” Phytother. Res. 1995; 9(8): 594–96.
Dhir, H., et al. “Protection afforded by aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus species against cytotoxicity induced by lead and aluminium salts.” Phytother. Res. 1990; 4(5): 172–76
Sreenivasa, R. Y. “Experimental production of liver damage and its protection with Phyllanthus niruri and Capparis spinosa (both ingredients of LIV52) in white albino rats.” Probe 1985; 24(2): 117–19.
Syamasundar, K. V., et al. "Antihepatotoxic principles of Phyllanthus niruri herbs." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1985; 14(1): 41-4.

Anticancerous & Cellular Protective Actions:
Lu, K., et al. "Phyllanthus urinaria suppresses human osteosarcoma cell invasion and migration by transcriptionally inhibiting u-PA via ERK and Akt signaling pathways." Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Nov 28.
Araújo, R., et al. "Growth inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus niruri extracts in combination with cisplatin on cancer cell lines." World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Aug 21;18(31):4162-6168.
Wu, H, et al. "Phyllanthus urinaria Induces Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma 143B Cells via Activation of Fas/FasL- and Mitochondria-Mediated Pathways." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:925824.
Tseng, H., et al. "Antimetastatic potentials of Phyllanthus urinaria L on A549 and Lewis lung carcinoma cells via repression of matrix-degrading proteases." Integr Cancer Ther. 2012 Sep;11(3):267-78.
Thakur, I., et al. "Protection against radiation clastogenecity in mouse bone marrow by Phyllanthus niruri." Indian J Exp Biol. 2011 Sep;49(9):704-10.
Karuna, R., et al. "Protective effects of Phyllanthus amarus aqueous extract against renal oxidative stress in Streptozotocin -induced diabetic rats." Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 Jul;43(4):414-8.
Lee, S., et al. "Antimetastatic effects of Phyllanthus on human lung (A549) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines." PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e20994.
Sharma, P., et al. "Modulatory influence of Phyllanthus niruri on oxidative stress, antioxidant defense and chemically induced skin tumors." J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2011;30(1):43-53.
Thippeswamy, A., et al. "Protective role of Phyllantus niruri extract in doxorubicin-induced myocardial toxicity in rats." Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 Feb;43(1):31-5.
Huang, S., et al. "Anti-cancer effects of Phyllanthus urinaria and relevant mechanisms." Chang Gung Med J. 2010 Sep-Oct;33(5):477-87.
Guhu, G., et al. "Antimycin A-induced mitochondrial apoptotic cascade is mitigated by phenolic constituents of Phyllanthus amarus aqueous extract in Hep3B cells." Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Dec;48(12):3449-57.
Tang, Y., et al. "Phyllanthus spp. induces selective growth inhibition of PC-3 and MeWo human cancer cells through modulation of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis." PLoS One. 2010 Sep 8;5(9):e12644.
Sarkar, M., et al. "Prevention of tertiary butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidative impairment and cell death by a novel antioxidant protein molecule isolated from the herb, Phyllanthus niruri." Toxicol In Vitro. 2010 Sep;24(6):1711-9.
Ng, K., et al. "Anti-angiogenic and cytotoxicity studies of some medicinal plants." Planta Med. 2010 Jun;76(9):935-40.
Huang, S., et al. "Ellagic acid, the active compound of Phyllanthus urinaria, exerts in vivo anti-angiogenic effect and inhibits MMP-2 activity." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010;
Harikumar, K., et al. "Inhibition of viral carcinogenesis by Phyllanthus amarus." Integr. Cancer Ther. 2009 Sep; 8(3): 254-60.
Guhu, G., et al. "Aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus inhibits chromium(VI)-induced toxicity in MDA-MB-435S cells." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2009 Oct 27.
Londhe, J., et al. "Radioprotective properties of polyphenols from Phyllanthus amarus Linn." J. Radiat. Res. (Tokyo). 2009 Jul; 50(4):303-9.
Harikumar, K., et al. "Phyllanthus amarus inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in Dalton's lymphoma ascites cells through activation of caspase-3 and downregulation of Bcl-2." Integr. Cancer Ther. 2009 Jun; 8(2): 190-4.
Chularojmontri, L., et al. "Cytoprotective role of Phyllanthus urinaria L. and glutathione-S transferase Pi in doxorubicin-induced toxicity in H9c2 cells." J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 2009 Jun; 92 Suppl 3: S43-51.
Huang, S., et al. "Phyllanthus urinaria increases apoptosis and reduces telomerase activity in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells." Forsch. Komplementmed. 2009 Feb; 16(1): 34-40.
C Jagetia, G. "Radioprotective potential of plants and herbs against the effects of ionizing radiation." J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 2007 Mar; 40(2): 74-81.
Harikumar, K., et al. An extract of Phyllanthus amarus protects mouse chromosomes and intestine from radiation induced damages." J. Radiat. Res (Tokyo). 2007 Nov; 48(6): 469-76.
Iizuka, T, et al. "Inhibitory effects of methyl brevifolincarboxylate isolated from Phyllanthus niruri L. on platelet aggregation." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2007; 30(2): 382-4.
Leite, D. F., et al. "The cytotoxic effect and the multidrug resistance reversing action of lignans from Phyllanthus amarus." Planta Med. 2006 Dec; 72(15): 1353-8.
Raphael, K. R., et al. "Inhibition of N-Methyl N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induced gastric carcinogenesis by Phyllanthus amarus extract." Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 2006 Apr-Jun; 7(2): 299-302.
Hari Kumar, K. B., et al . "Inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450) in vitro as well as in vivo by Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 29(7): 1310-3.
Mellinger, C. G., et al. “Chemical and biological properties of an arabinogalactan from Phyllanthus niruri.J. Nat. Prod. 2005; 68(10): 1479-83.
Kumar, K. B., et al. “Chemoprotective activity of an extract of Phyllanthus amarus against cyclophosphamide induced toxicity in mice.” Phytomedicine. 2005; 12(6-7): 494-500.
Raphael, K. R., et al. “Inhibition of experimental gastric lesion and inflammation by Phyllanthus amarus extract.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 87(2-3): 193-7.
Rajeshkumar, N. V. "Antitumour and anticarcinogenic activity of Phyllanthus amarus extract." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 81(1): 17-22.
Sripanidkulchai, B., et al. “Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of Phyllanthus amarus.Phytomedicine 2002; 9(1): 26–32.
Devi, P. U. “Radioprotective effect of Phyllanthus niruri on mouse chromosomes.” Curr. Sci. 2000; 78(10): 1245–47.
Souza, C. R., et al. “Compounds extracted from Phyllanthus and Jatropha elliptica inhibit the binding of [3H]glutamate and [3H]GMP-PNP in rat cerebral cortex membrane.” Neurochem. Res. 2000; 25(2): 211–15.

Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Cholesterol & Hypotensive Actions:
Adeneye, A. "The leaf and seed aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus improves insulin resistance diabetes in experimental animal studies." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Dec 18;144(3):705-11.
Patel, K., et al. "Effect of Atibalamula and Bhumyamalaki on thirty-three patients of diabetic neuropathy." Ayu. 2011 Jul;32(3):353-6.
Karuna, R., et al. "Protective effects of Phyllanthus amarus aqueous extract against renal oxidative stress in Streptozotocin -induced diabetic rats." Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 Jul;43(4):414-8.
Okoli, C., et al. "Studies on the possible mechanisms of antidiabetic activity of extract of aerial parts of Phyllanthus niruri." Pharm Biol. 2011 Mar;49(3):248-55.
Tamil, I., et al. "In vitro study on alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of an Indian medicinal plant, Phyllanthus amarus." Indian J Pharmacol. 2010 Oct;42(5):280-2.
Gunawan-Puteri, M., et al. "alpha-Amylase inhibitors from an Indonesian medicinal herb, Phyllanthus urinaria." J Sci Food Agric. 2011 Sep 23.
Latha, P., et al. "Protective effect of Phyllanthus niruri on alcohol and heated sunflower oil induced hyperlipidemia in Wistar rats." Toxicol Mech Methods. 2010 Oct;20(8):498-503.
Lin, S., et al. "Antioxidant, anti-semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, and anti-hypertensive activities of geraniin isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2008; 46(7): 2485-92.
Modak, M., et al. "Indian herbs and herbal drugs used for the treatment of diabetes." J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 2007 May; 40(3): 163-73.
Amaechina, F., et al. "Hypotensive effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thonn (Euphorbiaceae)." Acta Pol. Pharm. 2007 Nov-Dec; 64(6): 547-52.
Adeneye, A. A., et al. "Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities of the aqueous leaf and seed extract of Phyllanthus amarus in mice." Fitoterapia. 2006 Dec; 77(7-8): 511-4.
Ali, H., et al. "alpha-Amylase inhibitory activity of some Malaysian plants used to treat diabetes; with particular reference to Phyllanthus amarus." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Oct; 107(3): 449-55.
Raphael, K. R., et al. “Hypoglycemic effect of methanol extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats and its relation with antioxidant potential.” Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2002; 40(8): 905-9.
Khanna, A. K., et al. "Lipid lowering activity of Phyllanthus niruri in hyperlipemic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 82(1): 19-22.
Srividya, N., et al. “Diuretic, hypotensive and hypoglycaemic effect of Phyllanthus amarus.Indian J. Exp. Biol. 1995; 33(11): 861–64.
Shimizu, M., et al. “Studies on aldose reductase inhibitors from natural products. II. Active components of a Paraguayan crude drug, ‘paraparai mi,’ Phyllanthus niruri.Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 1989; 37(9): 2531–32.
Umarani, D., et al. “Ethanol induced metabolic alterations and the effect of Phyllanthus niruri in their reversal.” Ancient Sci. Life 1985; 4(3): 174–80.
Ramakrishnan, P. N., et al. “Oral hypoglycaemic effect of Phyllanthus niruri (Linn.) leaves.” Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 1982; 44(1): 10–12.

Immunomodulatory Actions:
Chowdhury, S., et al. "The lignan niranthin poisons Leishmania donovani topoisomerase IB and favours a Th1 immune response in mice." EMBO Mol Med. 2012 Oct;4(10):1126-43.
Jatan, I., et al. "Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants." J Nat Med. 2011 Apr;65(2):400-5.
Nworu, C., et al. "The effects of Phyllanthus niruri aqueous extract on the activation of murine lymphocytes and bone marrow-derived macrophages." Immunol Invest. 2010 Jan;39(3):245-67.
Mellinger, C., et al. "Chemical and immunological modifications of an arabinogalactan present in tea preparations of Phyllanthus niruri after treatment with gastric fluid." Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2008 Aug; 43(2): 115-20.

Antiparasitic, Antimalarial, Wound-Healing, & Other Antimicrobial Actions:
Amin, Z., et al. "Assessment of in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and immune activation potentials of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Phyllanthus niruri." J Sci Food Agric. 2012 Jul;92(9):1874-7
Ranilla, L, et al. "Antimicrobial activity of an Amazon medicinal plant (Chancapiedra) (Phyllanthus niruri L.) against Helicobacter pylori and lactic acid bacteria." Phytother Res. 2012 Jun;26(6):791-9.
Narayanan, A., et al. "Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India." Benef Microbes. 2011 Sep;2(3):235-43.
Chowdhury, S., et al. "The lignan niranthin poisons Leishmania donovani topoisomerase IB and favours a Th1 immune response in mice." EMBO Mol Med. 2012 Oct;4(10):1126-43.
Keluskar, P., et al. "Ethnopharmacology guided screening of traditional Indian herbs for selective inhibition of Plasmodium specific lactate dehydrogenase." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Oct 31;144(1):201-7.
Kamaraj, C., et al. "Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants traditionally used in the villages of Dharmapuri regions of South India." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Jun 14;141(3):796-802
Appiah-Opong, R., et al. "Antiplasmodial activity of extracts of Tridax procumbens and Phyllanthus amarus in in vitro Plasmodium falciparum culture systems." Ghana Med J. 2011 Dec;45(4):143-50.
Yerbanga, R. et al. "Antimalarial plant remedies from Burkina Faso: their potential for prophylactic use." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Mar 27;140(2):255-60.
Venkatesalu, V., et al. "In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of some traditionally used medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum." Parasitol Res. 2012 Jul;111(1):497-501.
Ajala, T., et al. "The antiplasmodial effect of the extracts and formulated capsules of Phyllanthus amarus on Plasmodium yoelii infection in mice." Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011 Apr;4(4):283-7.
Rahuman, A., et al. "Larvicidal activity of some Euphorbiaceae plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)." Parasitol. Res. 2008 Apr; 102(5): 867-73.
Dapper, D., et al. "Antiplasmodial effects of the aqueous extract of Phyllantus amarus Schumach and Thonn against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice." Niger. J. Physiol. Sci. 2007 Jun-Dec; 22(1-2): 19-25.
Okigbo, R., et al. "Antimicrobial effects of Piper guineense 'Uziza' and Phyllantus amarus 'Ebe-benizo' on Candida albicans and Streptococcus faecalis." Acta Microbiol. Immunol. Hung. 2007 Dec; 54(4): 353-66.
Traoré, M., et al. "In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity of 'saye', an herbal remedy used in Burkina Faso traditional medicine." Phytother. Res. 2008; 22(4): 550-1.
Shakil, N., et al. "Nematicidal prenylated flavanones from Phyllanthus niruri." Phytochemistry. 2008 Feb; 69(3): 759-64.
Mustofa, S., et al. "In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of extracts of Phyllanthus niruri L. herbs traditionally used to treat malaria in Indonesia." Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health. 2007 Jul; 38(4): 609-15.
Mazumder, A., et al. "Antimicrobial potentiality of Phyllanthus amarus against drug resistant pathogens." Nat. Prod. Res. 2006; 20(4):323-6.
Devi, V., et al. "Effect of Phyllanthus niruri on wound healing in rats." Indian J. Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 Oct-Dec; 49(4): 487-90.
Kolodziej, H., et al. "Tannins and related compounds induce nitric oxide synthase and cytokines gene expressions in Leishmania major-infected macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells." Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2005 Dec; 13(23): 6470-6.
Subeki, S., et al. "Anti-babesial and anti-plasmodial compounds from Phyllanthus niruri." J. Nat. Prod. 2005; 68(4): 537-9.
Kloucek, P., et al. “Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Calleria District.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jun; 99(2): 309-12.
Cimanga, R. K., et al. “In vitro antiplasmodial activity of callus culture extracts and fractions from fresh apical stems of Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae): part 2.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec; 95(2-3): 399-404.
Agrawal, A., et al. “Evaluation of inhibitory effect of the plant Phyllanthus amarus against dermatophytic fungi Microsporum gypseum.” Biomed. Environ. Sci. 2004 Sep; 17(3): 359-65.
Tona, L., et al. “In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jul; 93(1): 27-32.
Mesia, L. T. K., et al. “In-vitro antimalarial activity of Cassia occidentalis, Morinda morindoides and Phyllanthus niruri.Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 2001; 95(1): 47–57.
Tona, L., et al. “Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 68(1/3): 193–203.
Farouk, A., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of certain Sudanese plants used in folkloric medicine. Screening for antibacterial activity (I).” Fitoterapia 1983; 54(1): 3–7.

Non-Toxic Actions:
Asare, G. et al. "Genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and toxicological evaluation of whole plant extracts of the medicinal plant Phyllanthus niruri (Phyllanthaceae)." Genet Mol Res. 2012 Jan 13;11(1):100-11.
Asare, G. et al. "Acute toxicity studies of aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus niruri." Interdiscip Toxicol. 2011 Dec;4(4):206-10.

Possible Herb-Drug Interactions:
Taesotikul, T., et al. "Effects of Phyllanthus amarus on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam and cytochrome P450 activities in rats." Xenobiotica. 2012 Jul;42(7):641-8.
Taesotikul, T., et al. "Inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus amarus and its major lignans on human microsomal cytochrome P450 activities: evidence for CYP3A4 mechanism-based inhibition." Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2011;26(2):154-61.



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