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A combination of rainforest plants which have been traditionally used to support memory and brain function.* For more information on the individual ingredients in Amazon Brain Support, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database. More information can also be found in the Organ-Specific Guide.
Ingredients: A herbal blend of samambaia, calaguala, tamamuri, catuaba, muira puama, cat's claw, suma, guarana, nettle, and sarsaparilla. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: Use three parts samambaia, three parts calaguala, two parts muira puama and one part each of the remaining plants shown in the list above. To make a small amount... "1 part" could be one tablespoon (you'd have 15 tablespoons of the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts, use "1 part" as one ounce or one cup or one pound. Combine all the herbs together well. The herbal mixture can then be stuffed into capsules or brewed into tea, stirred into juice or other liquid, or taken however you'd like.
Suggested Use: Take 2 grams by weight (or about 1 teaspoon by volume) two to three times daily, or as directed by a healthcare professional.
Contraindications: Not to be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.
Drug Interactions: None known.
Samambaia & Calaguala (Polypodium decumanum & Polypodium leucotomos)
Samambaia and calaguala are closely related Polypodium ferns which have demonstrated neuropro-tective actions. In 1997, a U.S. patent was filed on a samambaia extract capable of treating brain dis-orders such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia. The patent and several in vivo clinical studies indicate samambaia protects against brain cell degeneration, promotes repair of damaged brain cells, and has a protective effect to brain cells. In a double-blind placebo human trial in 2000, researchers reported patients with senile dementia improved cognitive performance, increased the blood supply to the brain, and also increased the electrical impulses in the brain. A calaguala patented product called anapsos is now used in Spain and Europe for the treatment of Alzheimer's and dementia.
Alvarez, X. A., et al. "Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study with anapsos in senile dementia: effects on cognition, brain bioelectrical activity and cerebral hemodynamics." Methods Find. Exp. Clin. Pharmacol. 2000; 22(7): 585-94.
Cacabelos, R., et al. "A pharmacogenomic approach to Alzheimer's disease." Acta Neurol. Scand. Suppl. 2000; 176: 12-19.
Alvarez, X. A., et al. "Anapsos improves learning and memory in rats with Beta-Amyloid (1-28) deposits in the hippocampus" Progress in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases, Ed. Fisher, A., Yoshida, M. and Hannin, I., Plenum Press, New York, 1998; pp. 699-703
Nikolov, R. "Alzheimer's disease therapy - an update." Drug News Perspect. 1998 May; 11(4): 248-55.
Alvarez, X. A., et al. "Anapsos reverses interleukin-1 beta overexpression and behavioral deficits in nbM-lesioned rats." Methods Find. Exp. Clin. Pharmacol. 1997; 19(5): 299-309.
Fernandez-Novoa, L., et al. "Effects of Anapsos on the activity of the enzyme Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase in an animal model of neuronal degeneration." Methods Find. Exp. Clin. Pharmacol. 1997; 19(2): 99-106.
Quintanilla A. E., et al. "Pharmaceutical composition of activity in the treatment of cognitive and/or neuroimmune dysfunctions." U.S. patent no. 5,601,829; 1997.
Muira puama (Ptychopetalum olacoides)
Muira puama is the subject of several animal and human studies which reports memory enhancement, learning enhancement, and and neuroprotective actions.
Figueiro, M., et al. "The Amazonian herbal Marapuama attenuates cognitive impairment and neuroglial degeneration in a mouse Alzheimer model." Phytomedicine. 2011 Feb 15;18(4):327-33.
Figueiro, M., et al. "Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in cognition-relevant brain areas of mice treated with a nootropic Amazonian herbal (Marapuama)." Phytomedicine. 2010 Oct;17(12):956-62.
Tang, W., et al. "Novel NGF-potentiating diterpenoids from a Brazilian medicinal plant, Ptychopetalum olacoides." Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Feb 1;19(3):882-6.
da Silva, A., et al. "MK801- and scopolamine-induced amnesias are reversed by an Amazonian herbal locally used as a "brain tonic"." Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009 Jan;202(1-3):165-72.
Tang, W., et al. "Clerodane diterpenoids with NGF-potentiating activity from Ptychopetalum olacoides." J Nat Prod. 2008 Oct;71(10):1760-3.
da Silva, A., et al. "Serotonin receptors contribute to the promnesic effects of P. olacoides (Marapuama)." Physiol Behav. 2008 Sep 3;95(1-2):88-92.
Siqueira, I., et al. "Antioxidant activities of Ptychopetalum olacoides ("muirapuama") in mice brain." Phytomedicine. 2007 Nov;14(11):763-9.
da Silva, A. L., et al. "Promnesic effects of Ptychopetalum olacoides in aversive and non-aversive learning paradigms." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Feb; 109(3): 449-457.
da Silva, A. L., et al. "Memory retrieval improvement by Ptychopetalum olacoides in young and aging mice." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec; 95(2-3): 199-203.
Siqueira, I. R., et al. "Neuroprotective effects of Ptychopetalum olacoides Bentham (Olacaceae) on oxygen and glucose deprivation induced damage in rat hippocampal slices." Life Sci. 2004 Aug; 75(15): 1897-906.
Siqueira, I. R., et al. "Ptychopetalum olacoides, a traditional Amazonian "nerve tonic," possesses anticholinesterase activity." Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2003 Jun; 75(3): 645-50.
Siqueira, I. R., et al. "Psychopharamcological properties of Ptychopetalum olachoides Bentham (Olacaceae)." Pharmaceutical Biol. 1998; 36(5): 327-34.
Forgacs, P., et al. "Phytochemical and biological activity studies on 18 plants from French Guyana." Plant Med. Phytother. 1983; 17(1): 22-32.
Dias Da Silva, Rodolpho. "Medicinal plants of Brazil. Botanical and pharmacognostic studies. Muira puama." Rev. Bras. Med. Pharm. 1925; 1(1): 37-41.
Tamamuri (Brosimum acutifolium)
Tamamuri has been documented as a PKC inhibitor. Too much PKC enzyme is involved in a wide variety of disease processes including brain tumors and brain disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and autoimmune disorders.
Takashima, J., et al. "Mururins A-C, three new lignoids from Brosimum acutifolium and their protein kinase inhibitory activity." Planta Med. 2002; 68(7): 621-625.
Aksoy, E., et al. "Protein kinase C epsilon: A new target to control inflammation and immune-mediated disorders." Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2004; 36(2): 183-8.
Stallings-Mann, M., et al. "A novel small-molecule inhibitor of protein kinase Ciota blocks transformed growth of non-small-cell lung cancer cells." Cancer Res. 2006 Feb; 66(3):1767-74.
Cohen, E. E., et al. "Protein kinase C zeta mediates epidermal growth factor-induced growth of head and neck tumor cells by regulating mitogen-activated protein kinase." Cancer Res. 2006 Jun; 66(12): 6296-303.
Catuaba (Erythroxylum catuaba)
Catuaba is traditionally used in Brazil as a nervine and to enhance memory. In a 2005 study catuaba was reported to provide dopaminergic-mediated antidepressant actions.
Viana, A., et al. " Antinociceptive Activity of Trichilia catigua Hydroalcoholic Extract: New Evidence on Its Dopaminergic Effects" Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011:
Kamden, J., et al. "Catuaba (Trichilia catigua) Prevents Against Oxidative Damage Induced by In Vitro Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rat Hippocampal Slices." Neurochem Res. 2012 Dec;37(12):2826-35.
Campos, M., et al. "Antidepressant-like effects of Trichilia catigua (Catuaba) extract: evidence for dopaminergic-mediated mechanisms." Psychopharmacology. 2005 Oct; 182(1): 45-53.
Barbosa, N. R., et al. "Inhibition of platelet phospholipase A2 activity by catuaba extract suggests anti-inflammatory properties." Phytother. Res. 2004; 18(11): 942-4.
Vaz, Z. R., et al. "Analgesic effect of the herbal medicine Catuaba in thermal and chemical models of nociception in mice." Phytother. Res. 1997; 11(2): 101-6.
Cat’s Claw (Uncaria tomentosa) Cat's claw contains amyloid-inhibiting compounds which are the subject of four U.S. patents. Amyloid plaque in brain cells is implicated in Alzheimer's disease. In addition, another study with mice indicated that cat's claw memory enhancement action was linked to actions noted on 5-HT2 receptors.
Snow, A., et al. "Compounds, compositions and methods for the treatment of amyloid diseases and synucleinopathies such as Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes, and Parkinson's disease." United States Patent No. 7,514,583 April 7, 2009
Castillo, G., et al. "Methods of isolating amyloid-inhibiting compounds and use of compounds isolated from Uncaria tomentosa and related plants." United States Patent No. 7,314,642 January 1, 2008.
Frackowiak, T., et al. "Binding of an oxindole alkaloid from Uncaria tomentosa to amyloid protein (Abeta1-40)." Z. Naturforsch C. 2006 Nov-Dec; 61(11-12): 821-6.
Jurgensen, S., et al. "Involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in the antinociceptive effect of Uncaria tomentosa." Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2005 Jul; 81(3): 466-77.
Kang, T. H., et al. "Pteropodine and isopteropodine positively modulate the function of rat muscarinic M(1) and 5-HT(2) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocyte." Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2002 May; 444(1-2): 39-45.
Mohamed, A. F., et al. " Effects of Uncaria tomentosa total alkaloid and its components on experimental amnesia in mice: elucidation using the passive avoidance test." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2001; 52(12): 1553-61.
Roth, B. L., et al. "Insights into the structure and function of 5-HT(2) family serotonin receptors reveal novel strategies for therapeutic target development." Expert Opin. Ther. Targets 2001 Dec; 5(6): 685-695.
Castillo, G. "Methods of isolation of amyloid inhibitory ingredients within Uncaria tomentosa." US Patent No 7,029,710, April, 18, 2006.
Castillo, G. " Methods of isolating amyloid-inhibiting compounds and use of compounds isolated from Uncaria tomentosa and related plants." US Patent No. 6,929,808, August 16, 2005.
Castillo, G., et al. "Pharmaceutical compositions containing Uncaria tomentosa extract for treating Alzheimer's disease and other amyloidoses." Patent-Pct. Int. Paol. 1998; 00 33,659: 67pp.
Suma (Pfaffia paniculata)
Suma is the subject of two animal studies (in 2004 and 2000) which reported that it promoted an increase in both learning and memory in aged mice treated.
Marques, L. C., et al. "Psychopharmacological assessment of Pfaffia glomerata roots (extract BNT-08) in rodents." Phytother. Res. 2004 Jul; 18(7): 566-72.
Calgaroto, N., et al. "Antioxidant system activation by mercury in Pfaffia glomerata plantlets." Biometals. 2010 Apr;23(2):295-305.
de-Paris, F., et al. "Psychopharmacological screening of Pfaffia glomerata Spreng. (Amarathanceae) in rodents." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov; 73(1-2): 261-9.
Mendes, F. R., et al. "Brazilian plants as possible adaptogens: An ethnopharmacological survey of books edited in Brazil." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Sep 1;
Mazzanti, G., et al. "Analgesic and anti-inflammatory action of Pfaffia paniculata (Martius) Kuntze." Phytother. Res. 1994; 8(7): 413-16.
Mazzanti, G., et al. "Anti-inflammatory activity of Pfaffia paniculata (Martius) Kuntze and Pfaffia stenophylla (Sprengel) Stuchl." Pharmacol. Res. 1993; 27(1): 91–92.
de Oliveira, F. G., et al. "Contribution to the pharmacognostic study of Brazilian ginseng Pfaffia paniculata." An. Farm. Quim. 1980; 20(1–2): 277–361.
Guarana (Paullina cupana)
Guaraná is the subject of 6 human and animal studies concerning memory enhancement and cognitive performance. In a 2007 double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-dose human evaluation study, guaraná improved secondary memory performance and increased alert and content mood ratings. Lower doses (75 mg) produced more positive cognitive effects than higher doses.
da Costa Miranda, V., et al. "Effectiveness of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) for postradiation fatigue and depression: results of a pilot double-blind randomized study." J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Apr;15(4):431-3.
Kennedy, D., et al. "Improved cognitive performance and mental fatigue following a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement with added guaraná (Paullinia cupana)." Appetite. 2008 Mar-May;50(2-3):506-13.
Haskell, C. F., et al. "A double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-dose evaluation of the acute behavioural effects of guarana in humans." J. Psychopharmacol. 2007; 21(1): 65-70.
Kennedy, D. O., et al. "Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract: comparison and interaction with Panax ginseng." Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2004 Nov; 79(3): 401-11.
Roncon, C., et al. "Anxiolytic effects of a semipurified constituent of guaraná seeds on rats in the elevated T-maze test." Planta Med. 2011 Feb;77(3):236-41.
Espinola, E. B., et al. "Pharmacological activity of Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) in laboratory animals." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Feb; 55(3):223-9.
Galduróz, J. C., et al. "The effects of long-term administration of guaraná on the cognition of normal, elderly volunteers." Rev. Paul. Med. 1996; 114(1): 1073-78.
Benoni, H., et al. "Studies on the essential oil from guaraná." Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 1996; 203(1): 95-8.
Galduróz, J. C., et al. "Acute effects of the Paulinia cupana, ‘guaraná,’ on the cognition of normal volunteers." Rev. Paul. Med. 1994; 112(3): 607-11.
Nettle (Urtica dioica)
Nettle was found to be an effective antioxidant and cellular protective supplement promoting brain cell survival in a rat study reported in 2005.
Shakibaei, M., et al. "Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1a-Induced NF-?B Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:509383.
Toldy, A., et al. "The beneficial effects of nettle supplementation and exercise on brain lesion and memory in rat." J Nutr Biochem. 2009 Dec;20(12):974-81.
Daoudi, A., et al. "Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants." Toxicol Ind Health. 2012 Feb 2. [Epub ahead of print]
Toldy, A., et al. "The effect of exercise and nettle supplementation on oxidative stress markers in the rat brain.Brain Res. Bull. 2005 May 30; 65(6): 487-93.
Barneoud, P., et al. "Brain neocortex immunomodulation in rats." Brain Res. 1988 Dec; 474(2): 394-8.
Rau, O., et al. "Screening of herbal extracts for activation of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor." Pharmazie. 2006; 61(11):952-6.
Kanter, M., et al. "Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats." World J. Gastroenterol. 2005; 11(42): 6684-8.
Gullcin, I., et al. "Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and inhibitory effects of some chemicals on enzyme activity." J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem. 2005 Jun; 20(3): 297-302.
Gullcin, I., et al. "Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcer and analgesic activities of nettle (Urtica dioica L.)." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Feb; 90(2-3): 205-15.
Sarsaparilla (Smilax sp)
Sarsaparilla, and several of its chemical constituents, were reported to provide protection of amyloid beta protein-induced neurotoxicity in several recent studies in rats. One of sarsparilla's main sapogenin chemicals, sarsasapogenin, was reported to improve memory by elevating the low muscarinic acetylcholine receptor density in brains of memory-deficit rats. This chemical, as well as others in sarsaparilla, are the subject of a 2004 U.S. patent which claim they are effective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Sarsaparilla and/or it's plant chemicals have documented anti-depressant. memory enhancements and anti-Alzheimer's actions in the following studies.
Zhang, R., et al. "Smilagenin attenuates beta amyloid (25-35)-induced degeneration of neuronal cells via stimulating the gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor." Neuroscience. 2012 May 17;210:275-85.
Hu, Y., et al. "Regulation of M1-receptor mRNA stability by smilagenin and its significance in improving memory of aged rats." Neurobiol Aging. 2010 Jun;31(6):1010-9.
Zhang, Y., et al. "Role of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor in the protective effect of smilagenin on rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons damaged by MPP+." FEBS Lett. 2008 Mar 19;582(6):956-60.
Jeon, S. Y., et al. "Beta-secretase (BACE1)-inhibiting stilbenoids from Smilax Rhizoma." Phytomedicine. 2006 Nov 2;
Ban, J. Y., et al. "Catechin and epicatechin from Smilacis chinae rhizome protect cultured rat cortical neurons against amyloid beta protein (25-35)-induced neurotoxicity through inhibition of cytosolic calcium elevation." Life Sci. 2006 Nov; 79(24) :2251-9.
Ren, L. X., et al. "Antidepressant-like effects of sarsasapogenin from Anemarrhena asphodeloides BUNGE (Liliaceae)." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006 Nov; 29(11): 2304-6.
Ban, J. Y., et al. "Protection of amyloid beta protein (25-35)-induced neurotoxicity by methanol extract of Smilacis chinae rhizome in cultured rat cortical neurons." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jun; 106(2): 230-7.
Barraclough , P., et al. "5-.beta.-sapogenin and pseudosapogenin derivatives and their use in the treatment of dementia." United States Patent 7,138,427: November 21, 2006.
Hu Y, et al. "A new approach to the pharmacological regulation of memory: Sarsasapogenin improves memory by elevating the low muscarinic acetylcholine receptor density in brains of memory-deficit rat models." Brain Res. 2005 Oct; 1060(1-2): 26-39.
Xia , Z. et al. Steroidal sapogenins and their derivatives for treating Alzheimer's disease." United States Patent 6,812,213; November 2, 2004.