Samambaia - Polypodium  aureum, leucomotos, decumanum, Samambaia - Polypodium  aureum, leucomotos, decumanum, Samambaia - Polypodium  aureum, leucomotos, decumanum Samambaia - Polypodium  aureum, leucomotos, decumanum, Samambaia - Polypodium  aureum, leucomotos, decumanum, Samambaia - Polypodium  aureum, leucomotos, decumanum

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Samambaia
(Polypodium decumanum)

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SAMAMBAIA

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  • Family: Polypodiaceae
    Genus: Polypodium
    Species: decumanum, leucotomos, aureum
    Synonyms: Phlebodium decumanum, P. multiseriale, Chrysopteris decumana
    Common Names: Samambaia, calaguala, huayhuashi-shupa, cotochupa, mirane, temakaje
    Parts Used: Rhizome, Leaves


    From The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs:

    SAMAMBAIA
    HERBAL PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS
    Main Actions Other Actions Standard Dosage
  • protects brain cells
  • cleanses blood
  • Leaves, Rhizome
  • protects skin cells
  • increaes urination
  • Infusion: 1/2 to 1 cup 1-3
  • reduces inflammation
  • lowers blood pressure
  • times daily
  • relieves psoriasis
  • promotes perspiration
  • Capsules: 1-2 g twice daily
  • immunomodulator
  •   Tincture: 2-3 ml twice daily
  • suppresses coughs
  •    
  • reduces phlegm
  •    
  • fights free radicals
  •    
  • natural sunscreen
  •    

    Samambaia is a fern that grows in the rainforests of South America as well as drier tropical forests in Latin America. The Polypody family contains three-quarters of all ferns—over 6,000 species of plants, mostly native to the tropics of both hemispheres. There are 75 species of plants in the Polypodium genus, many of which have been used medicinally for centuries. The name is derived from poly, meaning “many,” and podus, meaning “foot,” for the many foot-like divisions of the root or rhizomes of polypody ferns. Polypodium leucotomos (also classified as Polypodium aureum) and Polypodium decumanum (also classified as Phlebodium decumanum) are indigenous to the Honduran rainforests but also can be found throughout the South American tropics and in parts of Latin America and the Caribbean. In Brazil, the common name is samambaia; in Mexico and other Spanish-speaking tropical countries, the plant is known as calaguala.

    TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

    Samambaia, like most ferns, has an intricate, creeping root system; it is this rhizome, as well as the fronds or leaves, that is used most medicinally. The plant historically has been used by the indigenous peoples of Honduras for malignant tumors, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. In the Amazon rainforest a maceration of the rhizome is used for fever; grated fresh, it is made into a tea for whooping cough and kidney problems. The Boras Indians (in the Peruvian Amazon) prepare the leaves in a drink for coughs. The Witotos Indians (in the northwest Amazon) use the rhizome for treating coughs. Other Peruvian indigenous tribes use the rhizome for problems of the pancreas. Indigenous groups in Latin America use the rhizome and leaves for many different maladies including cancer, psoriasis, peptic ulcers, kidney problems, diarrhea, arthritis, and pains in joints and tendons. It is generally considered throughout the Amazon to be a general tonic, to detoxify the body, and to support the immune system.

    Many types of ferns are used in traditional medicine around the world. Most, including samambaia, are considered a tonic, blood cleanser, expectorant, and are used for numerous upper respiratory conditions. In Honduran traditional medicine systems today, samambaia commonly is used for tumors, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, vitiligo, rheumatoid arthritis, and arthritis. In Brazilian traditional medicine samambaia is considered a blood cleanser, sweat-promoter, tonic, and expectorant; it is widely used for coughs, bronchitis, colds and flu, and other upper respiratory problems - as well as for rheumatism and skin problems (including psoriasis and dermatitis). In Peruvian herbal medicine the rhizome is used for coughs, fevers, and urinary infections, as well as skin problems such as psoriasis, boils, ulcers, and abscesses.

    PLANT CHEMICALS

    Samambaia contains flavonoids, alkaloids and lipids. It is a rich source of lipids and fatty acids and its therapeutic activity is attributed to these groups of chemicals. Within its lipids are a group of chemicals called sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerols, which have been documented and patented as part of the plant's "active" chemicals. The main plant chemicals identified in samambaia thus far include adenosine, alkaloids, arachidonic acid, arabinopyranosides, calagualine, ecdysone, ecdysterone, eicosapentaenoic acid, elaidic acid, juglanin, kaempferols, linoleic acid, linoleic acids, linolenic acids, melilotoside, oleic acid, polypodaureine, ricinoleic acid, rutin, selligueain, and sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerols.

    BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

    Toxicity studies on samambaia with mice and rats have demonstrated no toxicity in acute or chronic dosages; in humans, oral doses greater than 1000 mg have not shown toxicity.

    There has been a great deal of scientific interest in Polypodium plants, mostly focusing on their ability to treat psoriasis. In the mid-1970s, rhizome extracts of samambaia were first reported to decrease the over-growth of skin cells and skin thickening, and reduce the severity and extent of skin lesions in psoriasis patients. In the early 1980s, a company in Spain produced an herbal drug from a water extract of samambaia (P. leucotomos) rhizome and named it Anapsos. Since that time it has been a prescription drug registered by the Health Ministry of Spain for the treatment of psoriasis. Clinical research also has been published on Anapsos since then (including various double-blind placebo human trials) indicating it to be an effective treatment for psoriasis - as well as dermatitis and vitiligo (with a 3-6 month course of treatment required).

    The mechanism of action in treating psoriasis is thought to be related to the modulation of certain cellular processes found in inflammation and psoriatic skin. Scientists have shown that psoriatic skin has abnormally high quantities of chemicals produced in the body called leukotriene and PAF (platelet-activating factor) Both are implicated in the cause and progression of psoriasis. In clinical research samambaia (and/or some of its novel chemicals) have shown to be effective in blocking excess leukotriene production as well as excess PAF. Psoriasis is also considered an autoimmune disease (as many of the immune cells are overstimulated, while others are suppressed). Extracts of samambaia have clearly demonstrated in clinical studies to possess some of the specific immune modulating effects needed to treat the imbalances in the immune system that are peculiar to psoriasis. Additionally, extracts of samambaia have been documented to have a direct anti-inflammatory activity in mice, rats, and humans with psoriasis.

    Some of the more recent research on samambaia has focused on other chronic and degenerative diseases. A U.S. patent was filed (in 2001) on a samambaia rhizome extract that indicated its suitability in the treatment of AIDS- and cancer- related wasting syndrome, reporting marked benefits in several non-randomized human studies with cancer and AIDS patients. In 1997, a U.S. patent was filed on a samambaia leaf and rhizome extract capable of treating brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. The patent and several in vivo clinical studies indicate samambaia protects against brain cell degeneration, promotes repair of damaged brain cells, and has a protective effect to brain cells. This was discovered when psoriasis patients in Europe taking anapsos (who also had Alzeimer’s) reported an improvement in their Alzheimer’s symptoms. This led the drug manufacturer to fund clinical trials on its use for brain disorders. In a double-blind placebo human trial (in 2000), researchers reported that a dosage of 360 mg per day of anapsos given to patients with senile dementia improved cognitive performance, increased the blood supply to the brain, and also increased the electrical impulses in the brain. The results were better with Alzheimer’s patients and those with mild dementia than those with severe dementia and extensive brain cell degeneration. Anapsos now is used in Spain and Europe for the treatment of Alzheimer’s and dementia.

    The same protective effects to brain cells seem to extend to skin cells as well. A 1997 U.S. patent was filed on an extract of samambaia, which indicated it is effective in preventing sunburn and skin damage (taken internally, as well as applied topically prior to exposure). Its protective effect against ultraviolet radiation was reported to be due, in part, to an antioxidant effect. One of the in vivo human studies confirming this activity was performed at Massachusetts General Hospital’s dermatology department. Another study (with hairless mice), conducted at Harvard medical school in 1999, reported that a samambaia extract applied topically helped to avoid skin damage and sun-associated skin aging, as well as reduced the number of UV-induced skin tumors in mice. The Harvard researchers published a human study in 2004 reporting that samambaia evidenced “substantial benefits of skin protection” to prevent sunburn and prevent skin aging when it was taken internally (at 7.5 mg/kg). Based on some in vitro studies, other university student researchers suggested that samambaia may help prevent sun damage and skin aging at low dosages while higher dosages may actually reverse the loss of normal elastic fibers associated with intrinsic aging of the skin. A pharmaceutical company in Spain has also published a study indicating that samambaia is suitable to use as a preventative treatment for sunburn and skin damage.

    The last area of research concerns samambaia’s possible uses for cancer. Researchers at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas published their first study on samambaia and one of its main chemicals (calagualine) in 2003. They reported that some of the intercellular processes blocked during psoriasis (NF-kappaB and tumor necrosis factor chemicals) also evidenced the ability to block and suppress inflammation, tumor formation, and tumor growth.

    CURRENT PRACTICAL USES

    It is likely that scientists will continue studying samambaia and why it works; meanwhile, natural health practitioners around the world will continue to employ its many purposes without knowing which specific chemicals are creating the beneficial effects. In addition to psoriasis, vitiligo and Alzheimer's, health practitioners in the United States are using samambaia for coughs, bronchitis, chest colds, flu, and disorders of the respiratory tract, skin, and immune systems - much as it has been used in indigenous herbal medicine systems for years.



    SAMAMBAIA PLANT SUMMARY
    Main Preparation Method: infusion or capsules

    Main Actions (in order):
    immunomodulator (selectively modulates overactive immune cells), antipsoriatic, neuroprotective (protects brain cells), cough suppressant, anti-inflammatory

    Main Uses:

    1. for psoriasis and other skin conditions
    2. for Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and memory problems
    3. for coughs, bronchitis, chest colds, and other upper respiratory problems
    4. for autoimmune disorders
    5. as a general tonic (tones, balances, strengthens overall body functions), a cellular-protector, and anti-aging aid
    Properties/Actions Documented by Research:
    anti-inflammatory, antidysenteric, antimutagenic (cellular protector), antioxidant, antipsoriatic, immunomodulator, neuroprotective (protects brain cells)

    Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use:
    anticancerous, cough suppressant, aperient (mild laxative), blood cleanser, cough suppressant, detoxifier, diaphoretic (promotes sweating), expectorant, febrifuge (reduces fever), hypotensive (lowers blood pressure), tonic (tones, balances, strengthens overall body functions)

    Cautions: Do not use in combination with digitalis and some heart drugs.




    Traditional Preparation: One-half to 1 cup leaf or root infusion 1-3 times daily or 2-3 ml of a 4:1 tincture or fluid extract twice daily. Traditionally, a simple, cold maceration of the rhizome and leaves often is used; therefore, 1-2 g daily of powdered root or leaf in tablets or capsules can be substituted, if desired.

    Contraindications: Reports indicate that samambaia may enhance the effects of the heart drug digitalis (a medication commonly used to increase the force of heart contractions in those diagnosed with certain heart conditions). It is therefore contraindicated in combination with digitalis, and persons with any heart condition should seek the advice of a qualified health practitioner prior to using samambaia.

    Drug Interactions: May potentiate the effects of digitalis and/or other digitalis-type prescription heart drugs.

    The absorption of samambaia is reported to be reduced in the presence of antacids.



    WORLDWIDE ETHNOMEDICAL USES
    Amazonia for cancer, coughs, detoxification, fever, immune disorders, kidney problems, pancreatic disorders, psoriasis, rheumatism, whooping cough
    Colombia for coughs
    Brazil for blood cleansing, bronchitis, colds, coughs, flu, gout, psoriasis, respiratory disorders, rheumatism, skin disorders, and as an expectorant, tonic, and to increase perspiration
    Honduras for arthritis, cancer, dermatitis, joint pains, kidney disorders, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, stomach ulcers, tendon pain, tumors
    Mexico for coughs, fever, respiratory problems, and to increase perspiration
    Peru for abscesses, boils, cough, fever, psoriasis, skin disorders, ulcers (skin), urinary infections, whooping cough
    United States for Alzheimer's, bronchitis, colds, cough, dermatitis, detoxification, eczema, flu, gout, hypertension, immune disorders, psoriasis, skin disorders, respiratory disorders, rheumatism, and to increase perspiration and urination
    Venezuela for venereal diseases and as a laxative
    Elsewhere for bronchitis, cancer, colds, coughs, fever, flu, gout, hypertension, immune disorders, kidney problems, psoriasis, respiratory disorders, rheumatism, skin disorders, tonic, tumors, urinary insufficiency




    The above text has been printed from The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs by Leslie Taylor, copyrighted © 2005
    All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, including websites, without written permission.

    A complete Technical Data Report is available for this plant.

    † The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.





    Referenced Quotes on Samambaia

    1. "Samambaia has been proven effective against cough, bronchitis, chest colds, flu, and disorders of the respiratory passages. It is also used for rheumatism and gout. It has diuretic and diaphoretic properties (causes perspiration) and is known to lower blood pressure."

    2. "Samambaia has been used as a general tonic for rheumatism. It helps to detoxify the body and support the immune system."

    10."Polypodium decumanum Willd. Polypodiaceae. "Calagula", "Huayhuashi-shupa". Rhizome maceration used for fever, whooping cough (grated or in infustion), and renal indispositions. From the leaves the "Boras" prepare a drink for coughs (DAT). Rhizome use to treat the pancreas (RVM). "Creoles" use the decocotion in reitual baths for infants (GMJ). In Latin America, "calagula", "Hantes" and "matico" are among the first mentioned when the subject is medicinal plants, especially cancer (JAD)."

    11. "The primary Amazon herbs used for their synergistic effects during athletic training and recovery include the following: Catuaba and Marapuama as strong tonics and nervous system fortifiers; Marapuama also for its anti-rheumatic properties; Sarsaparilla to increase circulation, clear toxins and stimulate metabolism; Iporuru for support of muscle and joint structure; Samambaia for detoxification of waste products and anti-rheumatic properties; Una de gato for antioxidant properties; Tayuya to remove lactic acid accumulations; and Suma for anabolic (muscle-building) effects. (See Table 1)"




    Third-Party Published Research on Samambaia

    All available third-party research on samambaia can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published research on samambaia is shown below:


    Anti-psoriasis Actions:
    Navarro-Blasco, F. J., et al. “Modification of the inflammatory activity of psoriatic arthritis in patients treated with extract of Polypodium leucotomos (Anapsos).” Br. J. Rheumatol. 1998; 37(8): 912.
    Vasange, M., et al. “A sulphonoglycolipid from the fern Polypodium decumanum and its effect on the platelet activating factor receptor in human neutrophils.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1997; 49(5): 562–617.
    Vasange, M., et al. “Flavonoid constituents of two Polypodium species (Calaguala) and their effect on the elastase release in human neutrophils.” Planta Med. 1997; 63(6): 511–17.
    Vasange, M., et al. “The fern Polypodium decumanum, used in the treatment of psoriasis, and its fatty acid constituents as inhibitors of leukotriene B4 formation.” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essent. Fatty Acids 1994; 50: 279–284.
    Tuominen, M., et al. “Effects of calaguala and an active principle, adenosine, on platelet activating factor.” Planta Med. 1992; 58(4): 306–10.
    Jimenez, D., et al. “Anapsos, an antipsoriatic drug, in atopic dermatitis.” Allergol. Immunopathol. 1987; 15(4):185–9.
    Jimenez, D., et al. “Anapsos modifies immunological parameters and improves the clinical course in atopic dermatitis.” Dermatologica 1986; 173(3):154–5.
    Pineiro Alvarez, B. “2 years personal experience in anapsos treatment of psoriasis in various clinical forms.” Med. Cutan. Ibero. Lat. Am. 1983; 11(1): 65–72.
    Vargas, J., et al. “Anapsos, an antipsoriatic drug which increases the proportion of suppressor cells in human peripheral blood.” Ann. Immunol. 1983; 134C(3):393–400.
    Del Pino Gamboa, J., et al. “Comparative study between 120 mg. of anapsos and a placebo in 37 psoriasis patients.” Med. Cutan. Ibero. Lat. Am. 1982; 10(3): 203–8.
    Capella Perez, M. C., et al. “Double-blind study using ‘anapsos’ 120 mg. in the treatment of psoriasis.” Actas Dermosifiliogr. 1981; 72(9-10): 487-94.
    Mercadal Peyri, O., et al. “Preliminary communication on the treatment of psoriasis with anapsos.” Actas Dermosifiliogr. 1981; 72(1–2): 65–8.
    Padilla, H. C. “A new agent (hydrophilic fraction of Polypodium leucotomos) for management of psoriasis.” Int. J. Dermatol. 1974; 13(5): 276–82.

    Sunscreen, Skin Cellular Repair & Protective Actions:
    Aguilera, P., et al. "Benefits of oral Polypodium Leucotomos extract in MM high-risk patients." J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2012 Jul 31.
    Rodríguez-Yanes, E., et al. "Polypodium leucotomos decreases UV-induced epidermal cell proliferation and enhances p53 expression and plasma antioxidant capacity in hairless mice." Exp Dermatol. 2012 Aug;21(8):638-40.
    Konda, S., et al. "New horizons in treating disorders of hyperpigmentation in skin of color." Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2012 Jun;31(2):133-9.
    Breithaupt, A., et al. "Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus: a case report of Polypodium leucotomos as an adjuvant therapy." Cutis. 2012 Apr;89(4):183-4.
    Tanew, A., et al. "Oral administration of a hydrophilic extract of Polypodium leucotomos for the prevention of polymorphic light eruption." J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012 Jan;66(1):58-62.
    Gonzales, S., et al. "Fernblock, a nutriceutical with photoprotective properties and potential preventive agent for skin photoaging and photoinduced skin cancers." Int J Mol Sci. 2011; 12(12):8466-75.
    Caccialanza, M., et al. "Oral polypodium leucotomos extract photoprotective activity in 57 patients with idiopathic photodermatoses." G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2011 Apr;146(2):85-7.
    Reuter, J., et al. "Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications." J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2010 Nov;8(11):866-73.
    Gonzales, S., et al. "Mechanistic insights in the use of a Polypodium leucotomos extract as an oral and topical photoprotective agent." Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2010 Apr;9(4):559-63.
    Villa, A., et al. "Decrease of ultraviolet A light-induced "common deletion" in healthy volunteers after oral Polypodium leucotomos extract supplement in a randomized clinical trial." J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010 Mar;62(3):511-3.
    Whitton, M., et al. "Interventions for vitiligo." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD003263.
    Zattra, E., et al. "Polypodium leucotomos extract decreases UV-induced Cox-2 expression and inflammation, enhances DNA repair, and decreases mutagenesis in hairless mice." Am J Pathol. 2009 Nov;175(5):1952-61.
    Phillips, N., et al. "Cancer cell growth and extracellular matrix remodeling mechanism of ascorbate; beneficial modulation by P. leucotomos." Anticancer Res. 2009 Aug;29(8):3233-8.
    Phillips, N., et al. "Beneficial regulation of matrixmetalloproteinases and their inhibitors, fibrillar collagens and transforming growth factor-beta by Polypodium leucotomos, directly or in dermal fibroblasts, ultraviolet radiated fibroblasts, and melanoma cells." Arch Dermatol Res. 2009 Aug;301(7):487-95.
    Filip, A., et al. "Photochemoprevention of cutaneous neoplasia through natural products." Exp Oncol. 2009 Mar;31(1):9-15.
    Bordere, A., et al. "Current and emerging therapy for the management of vitiligo." Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2009 Mar 12;2:15-25.
    Mulero, M., et al. "Polypodium leucotomos extract inhibits glutathione oxidation and prevents Langerhans cell depletion induced by UVB/UVA radiation in a hairless rat model." Exp Dermatol. 2008 Aug;17(8):653-8.
    Bauman, L., et al. "Less-known botanical cosmeceuticals." Dermatol Ther. 2007 Sep-Oct;20(5):330-42. Review.
    Jan'czyk, A., et al. "A Polypodium leucotomos extract inhibits solar-simulated radiation-induced TNF-alpha and iNOS expression, transcriptional activation and apoptosis." Exp Dermatol. 2007 Oct;16(10):823-9.
    Gonzales, S., et al. "Polypodium leucotomos extract: a nutraceutical with photoprotective properties." Drugs Today (Barc). 2007 Jul;43(7):475-85. Review.
    Luger, T. "[An alternative to creams? Sunscreens to swallow]." MMW Fortschr Med. 2007 Jun 28;149(27-28):8.
    Middelkamp-Hup, M., et al. "Treatment of vitiligo vulgaris with narrow-band UVB and oral Polypodium leucotomos extract: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study." J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007 Aug;21(7):942-50.
    Caccialanza, M., et al. "Photoprotective activity of oral polypodium leucotomos extract in 25 patients with idiopathic photodermatoses." Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2007 Feb;23(1):46-7.
    Reyes, E., et al. "Systemic immunomodulatory effects of Polypodium leucotomos as an adjuvant to PUVA therapy in generalized vitiligo: A pilot study." J. Dermatol. Sci. 2006; 41(3): 213-6.
    Capote, R., et al. "Polypodium leucotomos extract inhibits trans-urocanic acid photoisomerization and photodecomposition." J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 2006; 82(3): 173-9.
    Middelkamp-Hup, M. A., et al. “Oral Polypodium leucotomos extract decreases ultraviolet-induced damage of human skin.” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 2004 Dec; 51(6): 910-8.
    Middelkamp-Hup, M. A., et al. “Orally administered Polypodium leucotomos extract decreases psoralen-UVA-induced phototoxicity, pigmentation, and damage of human skin.” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 2004; 50(1): 41-9.
    Philips, N., et al. “Predominant effects of Polypodium leucotomos on membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation, and expression of elastin and matrixmetalloproteinase-1 in ultraviolet radiation exposed fibroblasts, and keratinocytes.” J. Dermatol. Sci. 2003 Jun; 32(1): 1-9.
    Alonso-Lebrero, J. L., et al. “Photoprotective properties of a hydrophilic extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos on human skin cells.” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 2003 Apr; 70(1): 31-7.
    Alcaraz, M. V., et al. “An extract of Polypodium leucotomos appears to minimize certain photoaging changes in a hairless albino mouse animal model. A pilot study.” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 1999; 15(3–4): 120–26.
    Gonzalez, S., et al. “Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin.” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 1997; 13(1–2): 50–60.
    Pathak, M. A., et al. “Polypodium extract as photoprotectant.” U.S. patent no. 5, 614, 197; 1997.
    Gonzalez, S., et al. “Inhibition of ultraviolet-induced formation of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, erythema and skin photosensitization by Polypodium leucotomos.” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 1996; 12(2): 45
    Mohammad A. “Vitiligo repigmentation with Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos)." Int. J. Dermatol. 1989; 28(7): 479.

    Anti-Alzheimer’s & Brain Cell Protection Actions:
    Alvarez, X. A., et al. “Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study with anapsos in senile dementia: effects on cognition, brain bioelectrical activity and cerebral hemodynamics." Methods Find. Exp. Clin. Pharmacol. 2000; 22(7): 585–94.
    Cacabelos, R., et al. “A pharmacogenomic approach to Alzheimer’s disease.” Acta Neurol. Scand. Suppl. 2000; 176: 12–19.
    Alvarez, X. A., et al. “Anapsos improves learning and memory in rats with Beta-Amyloid (1-28) deposits in the hippocampus” Progress in Alzheimer's and Parkinson’s Diseases, Ed. Fisher, A., Yoshida, M. and Hannin, I., Plenum Press, New York, 1998; pp. 699-703
    Nikolov, R. “Alzheimer's disease therapy - an update.” Drug News Perspect. 1998 May; 11(4): 248-55.
    Alvarez, X. A., et al. “Anapsos reverses interleukin-1 beta overexpression and behavioral deficits in nbM-lesioned rats.” Methods Find. Exp. Clin. Pharmacol. 1997; 19(5): 299–309.
    Fernandez-Novoa, L., et al. “Effects of Anapsos on the activity of the enzyme Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase in an animal model of neuronal degeneration.” Methods Find. Exp. Clin. Pharmacol. 1997; 19(2): 99–106.
    Quintanilla A. E., et al. “Pharmaceutical composition of activity in the treatment of cognitive and/or neuroimmune dysfunctions.” U.S. patent no. 5,601,829; 1997.

    Anti-inflammatory Actions:
    Ramírez-Bosca, A., et al. "Polypodium leucotomos extract in atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial." Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2012 Sep;103(7):599-607.
    Diaz-Castro, J., et al. "Phlebodium decumanum is a natural supplement that ameliorates the oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling induced by strenuous exercise in adult humans." Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012 Aug;112(8):3119-28.
    Punzon, C., et al. “In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Phlebodium decumanum. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor and soluble TNF receptors.” Int. Immunopharmacol. 2003; 3(9): 1293-9.
    Manna, S. K., et al. ”Calagualine inhibits nuclear transcription factors-kappaB activated by various inflammatory and tumor promoting agents.” Cancer Lett. 2003; 190(2): 171-82.
    Navarro-Blasco, F. J., et al. “Modification of the inflammatory activity of psoriatic arthritis in patients treated with extract of Polypodium leucotomos (Anapsos).” Br. J. Rheumatol. 1998; 37(8): 912.

    Immune Modulating Actions:
    Solivellas, B., et al. "Polypodium leucotomos extract use to prevent and reduce the risk of infectious diseases in high performance athletes." Infect Drug Resist. 2012; 5:149-53.
    Gonzalez, J., et al. "[Effects of the consumption of Phlebodium Decumanum on plasma cortisol and testosterone levels in subjects participating in an exercise program]." Rev Med Chil. 2009 Apr;137(4):497-503.
    Siscovick, J., et al. "Polypodium leucotomos inhibits ultraviolet B radiation-induced immunosuppression." Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2008 Jun;24(3):134-41.
    Navarro-Zorraquino, M., et al. "Pharmacological immunomodulation of surgical trauma." J Invest Surg. 2007 Sep-Oct;20(5):283-9.
    López-Abán, J., et al. "Immunomodulation of the response to excretory/secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica by Anapsos in Balb/C mice and rat alveolar macrophages." J Parasitol. 2007 Apr;93(2):428-32.
    Reyes, E., et al. “Systemic immunomodulatory effects of Polypodium leucotomos as an adjuvant to PUVA therapy in generalized vitiligo: A pilot study.” J. Dermatol. Sci. 2006; 41(3): 213-6.
    Nogal-Ruiz, J. J., “Modulation by Polypodium leucotomos extract of cytokine patterns in experimental trichomoniasis model.” Parasite. 2003 Mar; 10(1): 73-8.
    Sempere-Ortells, J. M., et al. “Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos) modulates lymphoid cells and the expression of adhesion molecules.” Pharmacol. Res. 2002; 46(2): 185–90.
    Gonzalez, S., et al. “An extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (Difur) modulates Th1/Th2 cytokines balance in vitro and appears to exhibit anti-angiogenic activities in vivo: Pathogenic relationships and therapeutic implications.” Anticancer Res. 2000; 20(3a): 1567–75.
    Sempere-Ortells , J. M., et al. “Effect of Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract) on in vitro production of cytokines.” Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 1997; 43(1): 85–9.
    Bernd, A., et al. “In vitro studies on the immunomodulating effects of Polypodium leucotomos extract on human leukocyte fractions.” Arzneimittelforschung. 1995; 45(8): 901–4.
    Rayward, J. et al. ”Polypodium leucotomos (PL), an herbal extract, inhibits the proliferative response of T. lymphocytes to polyclonal mitogens.” Second Intl. Cong. on Biol. Response Modifiers, San Diego, U.S.A. 1993.
    Tuominen, M., et al., “Enhancing effect of extract Polypodium leucotomos on the prevention of rejection on skin transplants” Phytotherapy Research 1991; 5: 234–37.

    Antioxidant Actions:
    Diaz-Castro, J., et al. "Phlebodium decumanum is a natural supplement that ameliorates the oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling induced by strenuous exercise in adult humans." Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012 Aug;112(8):3119-28.
    Rodríguez-Yanes, E., et al. "Polypodium leucotomos decreases UV-induced epidermal cell proliferation and enhances p53 expression and plasma antioxidant capacity in hairless mice." Exp Dermatol. 2012 Aug;21(8):638-40.
    Berson, D. "Natural antioxidants." J Drugs Dermatol. 2008 Jul;7(7 Suppl):s7-12.
    Mulero, M., et al. "Polypodium leucotomos extract inhibits glutathione oxidation and prevents Langerhans cell depletion induced by UVB/UVA radiation in a hairless rat model." Exp Dermatol. 2008 Aug;17(8):653-8.
    Emanuel, P., et al. "A review of DNA repair and possible DNA-repair adjuvants and selected natural anti-oxidants." Dermatol Online J. 2007 Jul 13;13(3):10.
    Garcia, F., et al. "Phenolic components and antioxidant activity of Fernblock, an aqueous extract of the aerial parts of the fern Polypodium leucotomos." Methods Find Exp. Clin. Pharmacol. 2006 Apr; 28(3): 157-60.
    Gombau, L., et al. “Polypodium leucotomos extract: Antioxidant activity and disposition.” Toxicol. In Vitro. 2006 Jun; 20(4): 464-71.
    Gomes, A. J., et al. “The antioxidant action of Polypodium leucotomos extract and Kojic acid: Reactions with reactive oxygen species.” Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 2001; 34(11): 1487–94.



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