Vassourinha - Scoparia dulcis Vassourinha, Vassourinha - Scoparia dulcis Vassourinha, Vassourinha - Scoparia dulcis Vassourinha, Vassourinha - Scoparia dulcis Vassourinha - Scoparia dulcis Vassourinha, Vassourinha - Scoparia dulcis Vassourinha, Vassourinha - Scoparia dulcis Vassourinha, Vassourinha - Scoparia dulcis

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Vassourinha
(Scoparia dulcis)

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Vassourinha - Scoparia dulcis Vassourinha, Vassourinha - Scoparia dulcis Vassourinha, Vassourinha - Scoparia dulcis Vassourinha, Vassourinha - Scoparia dulcis
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Vassourinha

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  • Family: Scrophulariaceae
    Genus: Scoparia
    Species: dulcis
    Synonyms: Scoparia grandiflora, Scoparia ternata, Capraria dulcis, Gratiola micrantha
    Common Names: Vassourinha, ñuñco pichana, anisillo, bitterbroom, boroemia, broomweed, brum sirpi, escobilla, mastuerzo, piqui pichana, pottipooli, sweet broom, tapixava, tupixaba, licorice weed
    Parts Used: Leaves, bark, roots


    From The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs:

    VASSOURINHA
    HERBAL PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS
    Main Actions Other Actions Standard Dosage
  • kills viruses
  • kills bacteria
  • Whole herb
  • kills leukemia cells
  • kills fungi
  • Infusion: 1 cup twice daily
  • inhibits tumors
  • reduces fever
  • Capsules: 2-3 g twice daily
  • kills germs
  • heals wounds
  •  
  • reduces inflammation
  • lowers blood sugar
  •  
  • relieves pain
  • lowers body temperature
  •  
  • reduces spasms
  •    
  • expels phlegm
  •    
  • promotes menstruation
  •    
  • reduces blood pressure
  •    
  • supports heart
  •    

    Vassourinha is an erect annual herb in the foxglove family that grows up to 1/2 m high. It produces serrated leaves and many small, white flowers. It is widely distributed in many tropical countries in the world and is found in abundance in South America and the Amazon rainforest. It can be found as far north as the Southern United States, including Texas, Florida and Louisiana. The plant is called escobilla in Peru, vassourinha in Brazil and in here in the U.S. the plant is known as sweet broomweed or licorice weed. In many areas, the plant is considered an invasive weed.

    TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

    Vassourinha has long held a place in herbal medicine in every tropical country where it grows, and its use by indigenous peoples is well documented. Indigenous tribes in Ecuador brew a tea of the entire plant to reduce swellings, aches, and pains. The Tikuna Indians make a decoction for washing wounds, and women drink the same decoction for three days each month during menstruation as a contraceptive and/or to induce abortions. In the rainforests of Guyana, indigenous tribes use a leaf decoction as an antiseptic wash for wounds, as an anti-nausea aid for infants, as a soothing bath to treat fever, and in poultices for migraine headaches. Indigenous peoples in Brazil use the leaf juice to wash infected wounds, and place it in the eyes for eye problems; they make an infusion of the entire plant to use as an expectorant and to soothe and soften the skin. Indigenous tribes in Nicaragua use a hot water infusion and/or decoction of vassourinha leaves (or the whole plant) for stomach pain, for menstrual disorders, as an aid in childbirth, as a blood purifier, for insect bites, fevers, heart problems, liver and stomach disorders, malaria, venereal disease, and as a general tonic.

    Vassourinha is still employed in herbal medicine throughout the tropics. In Peru a decoction of the entire plant is recommended for upper respiratory problems, biliary colic or congestion, menstrual disorders, and fever; the leaf juice is still employed externally for wounds and hemorrhoids. In Brazilian herbal medicine the plant is used to reduce fever, lower blood sugar and blood pressure, and as an expectorant for coughs and lung congestion. A tea is prepared from the leaves or aerial parts of the plant for fevers and urinary tract diseases, upper respiratory disorders, bronchitis, coughs, menstrual disorders, and hypertension. The leaf juice or a decoction of the leaves is also employed topically for skin ulcers and erysipelas. In Ayurvedic herbal medicine systems in India a leaf tea is widely used for diabetes.

    PLANT CHEMICALS

    Chemical screening of vassourinha has shown that it is a source of novel phytochemicals in the flavone and terpene classification, some of which have not been seen in science before. Many of vassourinha's active biological properties, including its anticancerous properties, are attributed to these phytochemicals. The main chemicals being studied are scopadulcic acids A and B, scopadiol, scopadulciol, scopadulin, scoparic acids A, B, and C, and betulinic acid.

    The antitumorous activity of scopadulcic acid B was demonstrated in a 1993 study, and antitumor activity against various human cancer cell lines was reported again in 2001. This chemical and another compound named scopadulin demonstrated antiviral properties in several studies, including against Herpes simplex I in hamsters. Betulinic acid is another phytochemical that has been the subject of much independent cancer research (beginning in the late 1990s). Many studies report that this phytochemical has powerful anticancerous, antitumorous, antileukemic, and antiviral (including HIV) properties. This potent phytochemical has displayed selective cytotoxic activity against malignant brain tumors, bone cancer, and melanomas (without harming healthy cells).

    Vassourinha's main plant chemicals include: acacetin, amyrin, apigenin, benzoxazin, benzoxazolin, benzoxazolinone, betulinic acid, cirsimarin, cirsitakaoside, coixol, coumaric acid, cynaroside, daucosterol, dulcinol, dulcioic acid, friedelin, gentisic acid, glutinol, hymenoxin, ifflaionic acid, linarin, luteolin, mannitol, scopadiol, scopadulcic acid A & B, scopadulciol, scopadulin, scoparic acid A thru C, scoparinol, scutellarein, scutellarin, sitosterol, stigmasterol, taraxerol, vicenin, and vitexin.

    BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

    In addition to its tested anticancerous chemicals, a methanol extract of vassourinha leaves also showed toxic actions against cancer cells (with a 66% inhibition rate) by Japanese researchers. These findings fueled more research on the chemicals in this plant and their activities that is still ongoing today.

    Some of vassourinha's other uses in herbal medicine have also been validated by western research. In early research, vassourinha demonstrated a cardiotonic effect in animals. More than 40 years later, researchers reconfirmed its blood pressure lowering properties in rats and dogs (while increasing the strength of the heartbeat). It also demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and pain relieving activity in animal studies with rats, mice, and guinea pigs. A single chemical called scoparinol was identified by scientists as being responsible for the pain relieving effects. Another researcher, in a 2001 study, again documented significant pain relieving and anti-inflammatory effects in laboratory animals - and also indicated scoparinol demonstrated diuretic and barbiturate potentiation activity. These documented actions could certainly explain its traditional use as a natural remedy for pain of all types (including menstrual pain and cramps as well as during childbirth). In 2002, researchers in India verified vassourinha's antidiabetic and blood sugar-lowering effects in rats. In other in vitro laboratory tests, vassourinha demonstrated antioxidant actions, as well as, active properties against bacteria and fungi (which could explain its sustained use for respiratory and urinary tract infections).

    CURRENT PRACTICAL USES

    Scientists have been trying since the mid-1990s to synthesize several plant chemicals found in vassourinha, including scopadulcic acid B and betulinic acid, for their use in the pharmaceutical industry. Herbalists and natural health practitioners have used and will continue to use the plant as an effective natural remedy for upper respiratory problems and viruses, for menstrual problems, and as a natural pain reliever and antispasmodic remedy when needed. Water and ethanol extracts given to mice at up to 2 grams per kilogram of body weight showed no toxicity.



    VASSOURINHA PLANT SUMMARY
    Main Preparation Method: decoction, infusion or capsules

    Main Actions (in order):
    anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, analgesic (pain-reliever), antispasmodic, anticancerous

    Main Uses:

    1. for menstrual problems (pain, cramps, premenstrual syndrome [PMS], to promote and normalize menstruation)
    2. for upper respiratory bacterial and viral infections
    3. to relieve pain of all types (arthritis, migraines and headaches, stomach aches, muscle pain, etc)
    4. to tone, balance, and strengthen heart function (and for mild hypertension)
    5. for venereal diseases and urinary tract infections
    Properties/Actions Documented by Research:
    analgesic (pain-reliever), anti-inflammatory, antitumorous, antibacterial, anticancerous, antifungal, antileukemic, antispasmodic, antiviral, cardiotonic (tones, balances, strengthens heart function), central nervous system depressant, diuretic, hypoglycemic, hypotensive (lowers blood pressure), sedative

    Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use:
    abortive, antimalarial, cough suppressant, antivenin, contraceptive, decongestant, detoxifier, emollient, expectorant, febrifuge (reduces fever), hepatotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the liver), insecticide, menstrual stimulant, refrigerant (lowers body temperature), tonic (tones, balances, strengthens overall body functions), vermifuge (expels worms), wound healer

    Cautions: Use with caution in combination with barbiturates and antidepressants. It has hypoglycemic effects.



    Traditional Preparation: The reported therapeutic dosage generally used in South America is 2-3 g twice daily or 1 cup of a standard infusion twice daily.

    Contraindications:

    • The traditional use as an abortive and/or childbirth aid warrants that vassourinha should not be taken during pregnancy.
    • Avoid combining with antidepressants or barbiturates unless under the supervision of a qualified health care practitioner (see drug interactions below).
    • A vassourinha extract recently demonstrated hypoglycemic activity, significantly lowering blood sugar levels in rats. This plant is probably contraindicated in people with hypoglycemia. Diabetics monitor their blood glucose levels closely if they use vassourinha to monitor these possible effects.

    Drug Interactions: One human study documented that an ethanol extract of vassourinha inhibited radioligand binding to dopamine and seratonin. Another study reported that a water extract given intragastrically to rats potentiated the effects of barbiturates. As such, it is possible that vassourinha may enhance the effect of barbiturates and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants.



    WORLDWIDE ETHNOMEDICAL USES
    Amazonia for abortions, aches, bronchitis, contraception, coughs, diarrhea, erysipelas, eye infections, fever, hemorrhoids, kidney disease, liver problems, nausea, pain, sores (gonorrhea), stomach disorders, swelling, wounds
    Brazil for abortions, bronchitis, cardiopulmonary disorders, coughs, diabetes, earache, excessive phlegm, eye problems, fever, gastric disorders, hemorrhoids, hypertension, hyperglycemia, insect bites, jaundice, liver disorders, malaria, menstrual disorders, menstrual promotion, pain, upper respiratory disorders, skin problems, worms, wounds
    Central America for bruises, constipation, diarrhea, fever, flu, gonorrhea, kidney stones, liver disorders, menstrual disorders, menstrual promotion, skin infections, sore throat, stomach disease, stomach pain, wounds, and as an insecticide
    Dominican
    Republic
    for diabetes, sore throat
    Haiti for coughs, diabetes, earache, gonorrhea, headaches, inflammation, menstrual disorders, nerves, pain, piles, skin sores, sore throat, spasms, toothache, tumors, and as an antiseptic, astringent and diuretic
    India for diabetes, dysentery, earache, fever, gonorrhea, headaches, jaundice, snake bite, stomach problems, toothache, warts
    Nicaragua for anemia, childbirth, blood cleansing, burns, cough, diarrhea, fever, heart conditions, headache, infections, insect bites & stings, itch, liver disorders, malaria, menstrual disorders, snakebite, stomach disorders, venereal disease
    Peru for abortions, colic, contraception diarrhea, excessive mucus, fever, hemorrhoids, kidney diseases, menstrual disorders, upper respiratory disorders, wounds (infected)
    Surinam for bronchitis, coughs, diabetes, fever, jaundice, rash
    Trinidad for blood cleansing, diabetes, eczema, eye problems, jaundice, malabsorption, mange, menstrual disorders, rashes, sores, wounds
    Venezuela for diarrhea, gonorrhea, menstrual disorders
    West Indies for diarrhea, diabetes, menstrual disorders
    Elsewhere for abortions, aches, albuminuria, anemia, bronchitis, cancer, childbirth, cough, conjunctivitis, contraception, detoxification, diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery, earache, fever, headache, hyperglycemia, hypertension, kidney disorders, kidney stones, leprosy, liver disease, menstrual disorders, migraine, nausea, pains, retinitis, snakebite, stomachache, swellings, syphilis, toothache, venereal disease, worms, wounds, and as an antiseptic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, expectorant and laxative




    The above text has been printed from The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs by Leslie Taylor, copyrighted © 2005
    All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, including websites, without written permission.

    A complete Technical Data Report is available for this plant.

    † The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.





    Referenced Quotes on Vassourinha
    10. "Scoparia dulcis L. Scrophulariaceae.
    "Bati matsoti", "Escobilla", "Ñucñu-pichana", "Piqui pichana". Leaf infusion used for bronchitis, cough, diarrhea, fevers, kidney diseases, and hemorrhoids (RVM, VDF). Leaf infusion antidiarrheic and emetic (CAA). Antiseptic leaf decoction used for wounds; and fever. "Créoles" use the leaf decoction mixed with maternal milk as an antiemetic for infants. Dried leaves used by as a marihuana substitute. "Palikur" use the leaf decoction in antipyretic baths and in poultices for migraine headaches (GMJ). Ecuadorians take the tea for pain and swelling (SAR). "Tikuna" drink the tea, with or without "paico", three days during the menses as an abortifacient or contraceptive (SAR). Four to five plants tied together make the typical river-dweller's broom (RVM). Brazilians add the root to the bath when "cleaning their blood" (BDS). They apply strained leaf juice for eye ailments; and to infected wounds (erysipelas) (BDS)."





    Third-Party Research on Vassourinha

    All available third-party published research on vassourinha be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the third-party published research on vassourinha is shown below:

    Pain Relieving, Antispasmodic, & Anti-inflammatory Actions:
    Tsai, J., wt al. "Anti-inflammatory effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and betulinic acid." Am J Chin Med. 2011;39(5):943-56.
    Bangou, M., et al. "Evaluation of enzymes inhibition activities of medicinal plant from Burkina Faso." Pak J Biol Sci. 2011 Jan 15;14(2):99-105.
    Coulibaly, A., et al. "Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Scoparia dulcis L." J Med Food. 2011 Dec;14(12):1576-82.
    Phan, M. G., et al. "Chemical and biological evaluation on scopadulane-type diterpenoids from Scoparia dulcis of Vietnamese origin." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2006 Apr; 54(4): 546-9.
    Ahmed, M., et al. “Analgesic, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory principle from Scoparia dulcis.” Pharmazie. 2001; 56(8): 657–60.
    Freire, S. M., et al. “Sympathomimetic effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and catecholamines isolated from plant extracts.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1996; 48(6): 624-8.
    Freire, S., et al. “Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Scoparia dulcis L. extracts and glutinol in rodents.” Phytother. Res. 1993; 7: 408–14.
    Freire, S., et al. “Analgesic activity of a triterpene isolated from Scoparia dulcis (vassourinha).” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 1991; 86 (Suppl. II): 149–51.
    Ahmed, M. “Diterpenoids from Scoparia dulcis.” Phytochemistry. 1990; 29(9): 3035–37.
    Dhawan, B. N., et al. “Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. VI.” Indian J. Exp. Biol. 1977; 15: 208-219.

    Cytotoxic & Anticancerous Actions:
    Wu, W., et al. "Benzoxazinoids from Scoparia dulcis (sweet broomweed) with antiproliferative activity against the DU-145 human prostate cancer cell line." Phytochemistry. 2012 Nov;83:110-5.
    Hayashi, T., et al. "Investigation on traditional medicines of Guarany Indio and studies on diterpenes from Scoparia dulcis." Yakugaku Zasshi. 2011;131(9):1259-69.
    Kessler, J. H., et al. "Broad in vitro efficacy of plant-derived betulinic acid against cell lines derived from the most prevalent human cancer types." Cancer Lett. 2006 Dec 12;
    Mukherjee, R., et al. "Betulinic acid derivatives as anticancer agents: structure activity relationship." Anticancer Agents Med. Chem. 2006 May; 6(3): 271-9.
    Phan, M. G., et al. "Chemical and biological evaluation on scopadulane-type diterpenoids from Scoparia dulcis of Vietnamese origin." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2006 Apr; 54(4): 546-9.
    Hayashi, K., et al. "The role of a HSV thymidine kinase stimulating substance, scopadulciol, in improving the efficacy of cancer gene therapy." J. Gene Med. 2006 Aug; 8(8): 1056-67.
    Kasperczyk, H., et al. “Betulinic acid as new activator of NF-kappaB: molecular mechanisms and implications for cancer therapy.” Oncogene. 2005 Oct; 24(46): 6945-56.
    Fulda, S., et al. “Sensitization for anticancer drug-induced apoptosis by betulinic acid.” Neoplasia. 2005; 7(2): 162-70.
    Garg, A. K., et al. “Chemosensitization and radiosensitization of tumors by plant polyphenols.” Antioxid. Redox. Signal. 2005; 7(11-12): 1630-47.
    Wada, S., et al. "Betulinic acid and its derivatives, potent DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors, from the bark of Bischofia javanica." Chem. Biodivers. 2005 May; 2(5): 689-94.
    Hayashi, K., et al. “Evaluation of scopadulciol-related molecules for their stimulatory effect on the cytotoxicity of acyclovir and ganciclovir against Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene-transfected HeLa cells.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2004; 52(8):1015-7.
    Ahsan, M., et al. “Cytotoxic diterpenes from Scoparia dulcis.” J. Nat. Prod. 2003; 66(7): 958-61.
    Fulda, S., et al. “Betulinic acid induces apoptosis through a direct effect on mitochondria in neuroecto-dermal tumors.” Med. Pediatr. Oncol. 2000; 35(6): 616–18.
    Fulda, S., et al. “Betulinic acid: A new cytotoxic agent against malignant brain-tumor cells.” Int. J. Cancer 1999; 82(3): 435–41.
    Noda, Y., et al. “Enhanced cytotoxicity of some triterpenes toward leukemia L1210 cells cultured in low pH media; possibility of a new mode of cell killing.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1997; 45(10): 1665–70.
    Arisawa, M. “Cell growth inhibition of KB cells by plant extracts.” Natural Med. 1994; 48(4): 338–47.
    Nishino, H. “Antitumor-promoting activity of scopadulcic acid B, isolated from the medicinal plant Scoparia dulcis L." Oncology. 1993; 50(2): 100–3.
    Hayashi, T., et al. “Scoparic acid A, a beta-glucuronidase inhibitor from Scoparia dulcis.” J. Nat. Prod. 1992; 55(12): 1748
    Hayashi, R. J., et al. “A cytotoxic flavone from Scoparia dulcis L.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1988; 36: 4849–51.

    Antimicrobial, Antiparasitic, & Antimalarial Actions:
    Dos Santos, E., et al. "Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:846583.
    Hayashi, T., et al. "Investigation on traditional medicines of Guarany Indio and studies on diterpenes from Scoparia dulcis." Yakugaku Zasshi. 2011;131(9):1259-69.
    Ruiz, L., et al. "Plants used by native Amazonian groups from the Nanay River (Peru) for the treatment of malaria." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jan 27;133(2):917-21.
    Gachet, M., et al. "Assessment of anti-protozoal activity of plants traditionally used in Ecuador in the treatment of leishmaniasis." J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Mar 2;128(1):184-97.
    Hayashi, T., et al. "[Studies on evaluation of natural products for antiviral effects and their applications]." Yakugaku Zasshi. 2008 Jan;128(1):61-79.
    Latha, M., et al. "Phytochemical and antimicrobial study of an antidiabetic plant: Scoparia dulcis L." J. Med. Food. 2006 Fall; 9(3): 391-4.
    Phan, M. G., et al. "Chemical and biological evaluation on scopadulane-type diterpenoids from Scoparia dulcis of Vietnamese origin." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2006 Apr; 54(4): 546-9.
    Hayashi, K., et al. "Evaluation of scopadulciol-related molecules for their stimulatory effect on the cytotoxicity of acyclovir and ganciclovir against Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene-transfected HeLa cells." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2004 Aug; 52(8): 1015-7.
    Riel, M. A., et al. “Efficacy of scopadulcic acid A against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro.” J. Nat. Prod. 2002; 65(4): 614-5.
    Kanamoto, T., et al. “Anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity of YK-FH312 (a betulinic acid derivative), a novel compound blocking viral maturation.” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2001; 45(4): 1225–30.
    Rahman, S. M., et al. “The first total synthesis of (+/-)-scopadulin, an antiviral aphidicolane diterpene.” Org. Lett. 2001 Feb; 3(4): 619-21.
    Begum, S. A., et al. “Chemical and biological studies of Scoparia dulcis L. plant extracts.” J. Bangladesh Acad. Sci. 2000; 24(2): 141-148.
    Hayashi, T., et al. “Antiviral agents of plant origin. II. Antiviral activity of scopadulcic acid B derivatives.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1990; 38(1): 239–42.
    Hayashi, T. Et al. “Antiviral agents of plant origin. III. Scopadulin, a novel tetracyclic diterpene from Scoparia dulcis L.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1990; 38(4): 945–47.
    Hayashi, K., et al. “In vitro and in vivo antiviral activity of scopadulcic acid B from Scoparia dulcis, Scrophulariaceae, against Herpes simplex virus type 1.” Antiviral Res. 1988; 9(6): 345–54.
    Laurens, A., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal species of Dakar markets.” Pharmazie. 1985; 40(7): 482.

    Anti-ulcer & Antacid Actions:
    Hayashi, T., et al. "Investigation on traditional medicines of Guarany Indio and studies on diterpenes from Scoparia dulcis." Yakugaku Zasshi. 2011;131(9):1259-69.
    Babincova, M., et al. "Antiulcer activity of water extract of Scoparia dulcis." Fitoterapia. 2008 Dec;79(7-8):587-8.
    Mesia-Vela, S., et al. "In vivo inhibition of gastric acid secretion by the aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis L. in rodents." J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May 4;111(2):403-8.
    Hayashi, T., et al. “Scopadulciol, an inhibitor of gastric H+, K+-atpase from Scoparia dulcis, and its structure-activity relationships.” J. Nat. Prod. 1991; 54(3): 802–9.
    Asano, S., et al.”Reversible inhibitions of gastric H+,K(+)-ATPase by scopadulcic acid B and diacetyl scopadol. New biochemical tools of H+,K(+)-ATPase.” J. Biol. Chem. 1990 Dec; 265(36): 22167-73.
    Hayashi, T., et al. “Scopadulcic acid B, a new tetracyclic diterpenoid from Scoparia dulcis L. Its structure, H+, K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase inhibitory activity and pharmacokinetic behaviour in rats.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1990; 38(10): 2740-5.

    Anti-neurodegenerative Actions:
    Li, Y., et al. “Search for constituents with neurotrophic factor-potentiating activity from the medicinal plants of Paraguay and Thailand.” Yakugaku Zasshi. 2004; 124(7): 417-24
    Li, Y., et al. “Acetylated flavonoid glycosides potentiating NGF action from Scoparia dulcis.” J. Nat. Prod. 2004; 67(4): 725-7.

    Antidiabetic & Anti-cholesterol Actions:
    Beh, J., et al. "Scoparia dulcis (SDF7) endowed with glucose uptake properties on L6 myotubes compared insulin." J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 May 4;129(1):23-33.
    Latha, M., et al. "Antidiabetic effects of scoparic acid D isolated from Scoparia dulcis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes." Nat Prod Res. 2009;23(16):1528-40.
    Lans, C. A. "Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus." J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomedicine. 2006 Oct; 2: 45.
    Pari, L., et al. "Antihyperlipidemic effect of Scoparia dulcis (sweet broomweed) in streptozotocin diabetic rats." J. Med. Food. 2006 Spring; 9(1): 102-7.
    Pari, L., et al. “Antidiabetic effect of Scoparia dulcis: effect on lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin diabetes.” Gen. Physiol. Biophys. 2005 Mar; 24(1): 13-26.
    Latha, M., et al. “Effect of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on plasma and tissue glycoproteins in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.” Pharmazie. 2005; 60(2): 151-4.
    Pari, L., et al. “Effect of Scoparia dulcis (Sweet Broomweed) plant extract on plasma antioxidants in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in male albino Wistar rats.” Pharmazie. 2004; 59(7): 557-60.
    Pari, L., et al. “Effect of Scoparia dulcis extract on insulin receptors in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats: studies on insulin binding to erythrocytes.” J. Basic Clin. Physiol. Pharmacol. 2004; 15(3-4): 223-40.
    Latha, M., et al. “Scoparia dulcis, a traditional antidiabetic plant, protects against streptozotocin induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.” J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. 2004; 18(5): 261-72.
    Latha, M., et al. “Insulin-secretagogue activity and cytoprotective role of the traditional antidiabetic plant Scoparia dulcis (Sweet Broomweed).” Life Sci. 2004 Sep; 75(16): 2003-14.
    Latha, M., et al. “Effect of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on blood glucose, plasma insulin and some polyol pathway enzymes in experimental rat diabetes.” Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 2004; 37(4): 577-86.
    Latha, M., et al. “Modulatory effect of Scoparia dulcis in oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin diabetic rats.” J. Med. Food. 2003 Winter; 6(4): 379-86.
    Pari, L., et al. “Hypoglycaemic activity of Scoparia dulcis L. extract in alloxan induced hyperglycaemic rats.”Phytother. Res. 2002 Nov; 16(7): 662-4.

    Antioxidant Actions:
    Ratnasooriya, W. D., et al. “Antioxidant activity of water extract of Scoparia dulcis.” Fitoterapia. 2005 Mar; 76(2): 220-2.
    Pari, L., et al. “Protective role of Scoparia dulcis plant extract on brain antioxidant status and lipidperoxidation in STZ diabetic male Wistar rats.” BMC Complement. Altern Med. 2004 No; 4:16.
    Babincova, M., et al. “Free radical scavenging activity of Scoparia dulcis extract.” J. Med. Food. 2001; 4(3): 179-181.

    Antidepressant Actions:
    Hasrat, J., et al. “Medicinal plants in Suriname: Screening of plant extracts for receptor binding activity.” Phytomedicine. 1997; 4(1): 59–65.

    Liver-Protecting Actions:
    Tsai, J., et al. "Hepatoprotective effect of Scoparia dulcis on carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in mice." Am J Chin Med. 2010;38(4):761-75.
    Praveen, T., et al. "Hepatoprotective activity of petroleum ether, diethyl ether, and methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis L. against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice." Indian J Pharmacol. 2009 Jun;41(3):110-4.

    Wound-Healing Actions:
    Ediriweera, E., et al. "Pro blood clotting activity of Scoparia dulcis in rats." Ayu. 2011 Apr;32(2):271-4.






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