Sangre de Grado - Croton lechleri, Sangre de Grado - Croton lechleri - Sangre de Drago - Dragon's Blood Sangre de Grado - Croton lechleri, Sangre de Grado - Croton lechleri - Sangre de Drago - Dragon's Blood

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Sangre de Grado
(Croton lechleri)

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Sangre de Grado

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  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
    Genus: Croton
    Species: lechleri, salutaris, palanostigma
    Synonyms: Croton draco
    Common Names: Sangre de grado, sangre de drago, dragon’s blood, drago, sangue de drago, sangue de agua
    Part Used: Bark, resin/sap


    From The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs:

    SANGRE DE GRADO
    HERBAL PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS
    Main Actions Other Actions Standard Dosage
  • heals wounds
  • kills cancer cells
  • Resin
  • stops bleeding
  • prevents tumor growth
  • Internal: 10 to 15 drops
  • kills bacteria
  • stops mutations
  • twice daily
  • kills germs
  •   External: Apply to affected
  • kills fungi
  •   area twice daily
  • kills viruses
  •    
  • relieves diarrhea
  •    
  • reduces inflammation
  •    
  • relieves itching
  •    

    Sangre de grado is a medium-sized to large tree that grows from 10–20 m high in the upper Amazon region of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. Although tall, the trunk is usually less than 30 cm in diameter and is covered by smooth, mottled bark. It has large, heart-shaped, bright-green leaves and unique, greenish-white flowers on long stalks. Its Peruvian name, sangre de grado, means “blood of the dragon” (in Spanish). In Ecuador, it’s named sangre de drago (which means “dragon’s blood” as well). When the trunk of the tree is cut or wounded, a dark red, sappy resin oozes out as if the tree is bleeding—earning this local name. The genus Croton is a large one, with 750 species of trees and shrubs distributed across the tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. Crotons are rich in active alkaloids, and several species are well-known medicinal plants used as purgatives and tonics.

    TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

    Sangre de grado's red sap or latex (and also its bark) has a long history of indigenous use in the rainforest and in South America. The earliest written reference dates its use to the 1600s, when Spanish naturalist and explorer P. Bernabé Cobo found that the curative power of the sap was widely known throughout the indigenous tribes of Mexico, Peru, and Ecuador. For centuries, the sap has been painted on wounds to staunch bleeding, to accelerate healing, and to seal and protect injuries from infection. The sap dries quickly and forms a barrier, much like a "second skin." It is used externally by indigenous tribes and local people in Peru for wounds, fractures, and hemorrhoids, internally for intestinal and stomach ulcers, and as a douche for vaginal discharge. Other indigenous uses include treating intestinal fevers and inflamed or infected gums, in vaginal baths before and after childbirth, for hemorrhaging after childbirth, and for skin disorders.

    Sangre de grado resin and bark are used in traditional medicine in South America today in much the same manner as indigenous ones. In Peruvian herbal medicine it is recommended for hemorrhaging, as an antiseptic vaginal douche and, topically, for healing wounds. It is also used internally for ulcers in the mouth, throat, intestines and stomach; as an antiviral for upper respiratory viruses, stomach viruses and HIV; internally and externally for cancer and, topically, for skin disorders, insect bites and stings. In Brazilian traditional medicine the sap currently is used for wounds, hemorrhaging, diarrhea, mouth ulcers, and as a general tonic.

    PLANT CHEMICALS

    Sangre de grado resin or sap is a storehouse of phytochemicals including proanthocyanidins (antioxidants), simple phenols, diterpenes, phytosterols, and biologically active alkaloids and lignans Scientists have attributed many of the biologically active properties of the sap (especially its wound-healing capacity) to two main "active" constituents: an alkaloid named taspine, and a lignan named dimethylcedrusine.

    Of course, botanists, herbalists, and naturopaths would disagree with such reductionist conclusions (and often do); in this particular case, the matter is actually proven by science. Noted author and ex-USDA economic botanist Dr. James Duke summed this up eloquently, saying, "I like the comments on dragon's blood, and would add one further note: in addition to the proanthocyanadins (including Pycnogenol) and taspine, there's another active ingredient - dimethylcedrusine. While each of these alone - dimethylcedrusine, Pycnogenol and taspine - was shown to effectively heal wounded rats (with squares of skin exfoliated, i.e., peeled off) by European scientists, the whole dragon's blood was shown to speed healing four times faster. The whole was better than the sum of its parts. Synergy makes the whole herb stronger; diversity makes the rainforest stronger."

    The taspine alkaloid from sangre de grado was first documented with anti-inflammatory actions in 1979. In 1985 taspine was documented with anti-inflammatory, antitumorous (against sarcomas), and antiviral actions.

    The main plant chemicals in sangre de grado include: alpha-calacorene, alpha-copaene, alpha-pinene, alpha-thujene, beta-caryophyllene, beta-elemene, beta-pinene, betaine, bincatriol, borneol, calamenene, camphene, catechins, cedrucine, crolechinic acid, cuparophenol, D-limonene, daucosterol, dihydrobenzofuran, dimethylcedrusine, dipentene, eugenol, euparophenol, gallocatechin, gamma-terpinene, gamma-terpineol, hardwickiic acid, isoboldine, korberin A & B, lignin, linalool, magnoflorine, methylthymol, myrcene, norisoboldine, p-cymene, proanthocyanidins, procyanidins, resin, tannin, taspine, terpinen-4-ol, and vanillin.

    BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

    The wound-healing action of sangre de grado resin was first related to the taspine alkaloid in 1989. Several later studies also concentrated on the wound-healing and antitumorous properties of taspine. The lignan dimethylcedrusine was isolated by scientists in 1993 and was shown to play a central role in sangre de grado's effective wound-healing action. This Belgian study revealed that the crude resin stimulated contraction of wounds, helped in the formation of a crust/scab at the wound site, regenerated skin more rapidly, and assisted in the formation of new collagen. This was the study to which Dr. Duke referred in documenting that the crude resin was found to be four times more effective at wound healing and collagen formation than its isolated chemicals (and healed wounds 10-20 times faster than using nothing at all).

    The Belgian scientists also determined that taspine was active against herpes virus in this study. In 1994 other phytochemicals were found, including phenolic compounds, proanthocyanadins, and diterpenes, which showed potent antibacterial activity (against E. coli and Bacillus subtilis) as well as wound-healing properties. Another study documented sangre de grado's antioxidant effects and researchers in Canada documented its antifungal properties. Another important traditional use of the sap was verified by clinical research in a 2000 study designed to evaluate its gastrointestinal effects. Researchers concluded that "Sangre de grado is a potent, cost-effective treatment for gastrointestinal ulcers and distress via antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and sensory afferent-dependent actions." In 2002, these same researchers reported that sangre de grado evidenced an in vitro effect against stomach cancer and colon cancer cells as well. In 2003 Italian researchers reported that the resin inhibited the growth of a human myelogenous leukemia cell line and also prevented cells from mutating in test tube studies.

    Extracts of sangre de grado have demonstrated antiviral activity against influenza, parainfluenza, herpes simplex viruses I and II, and hepatitis A and B. The antiviral and anti-diarrhea properties of sangre de grado have come to the attention of the pharmaceutical industry over the last 10 years. A U.S.-based pharmaceutical company has filed patents on three pharmaceutical preparations that contain antiviral constituents and novel chemicals (a group of plant flavonoids they've named SP-303), extracted from the bark and resin of sangre de grado. Their patented drugs include an oral product for the treatment of respiratory viral infections, a topical antiviral product for the treatment of herpes, and an oral product for the treatment of persistent diarrhea. These products have been the subject of various human clinical trials. Although the immunomodulating effects of sangre de grado have not been the subject of targeted research yet, some researchers believe that the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities may provide nonspecific immune enhancement effects as well.

    More recently, several scientific tests have been conducted on a proprietary sangre de grado product (made into a skin balm) which was also based on traditional uses. They reported that in pest control workers, a sangre de grado balm was preferred over placebo, for the relief of itching, pain, discomfort, swelling, and redness in response to wasps, fire ants, mosquitoes, bees, cuts, abrasions, and allergic plant reactions (poison ivy and others). Subjects reported relief within minutes, and that it provided pain relief and alleviated symptoms (itching and swelling) for up to six hours. These reported effects in humans as well as several other tests they conducted in animals and in vitro models of inflammation led them to conclude that sangre de grado prevents pain sensation by blocking the activation of nerve fibers that relay pain signals to the brain (therefore functioning as a broad-acting pain killer) as well as blocks the tissue response to a chemical released by nerves that promotes inflammation.

    CURRENT PRACTICAL USES

    Research has confirmed many of the indigenous uses of this powerful rainforest plant. It is a wonderful, sustainable rainforest resource that warrants consumer attention as it becomes more widely available in the marketplace. Applied directly to the affected area, it is helpful for all types of cuts, scrapes, external wounds, bites, stings, rashes, and skin problems, including skin and nail fungi. Dr. James E. Williams, O.M.D., sums up sangre de grado's many uses by natural health practitioners, stating,

    "There is a wide range of potential applications for sangre de grado, including as a broad-spectrum anti-diarrheal agent from causes such as side effects of drugs, chemotherapy or radiation treatment, microbial infections of the intestine, traveler's diarrhea, and viral-induced diarrhea as in AIDS. It may also have other uses in gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and ulcerative diseases. Its cytotoxic effects make it a possible antitumor agent and its cicatrizant properties provide wound-healing potential. In addition, the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of sangre de grado make it a useful compound in the clinical treatment of chronic viral diseases and as a natural antibacterial agent."

    In addition, several health practitioners in the U.S. indicate benefits in using sangre de grado resin internally for diabetic neuropathy because of its previously documented effects on nerve endings, nerve pain and nerve inflammation. Benefits have also been reported with diabetes-related skin ulcers and sores (applied topically) which have refused to heal using other methods.



    SANGRE DE GRADO PLANT SUMMARY
    Main Preparation Method: undiluted resin is taken internally (in small amount of juice/water) or applied topically

    Main Actions (in order):
    wound healer, antifungal, antiseptic, antiviral, antihemorrhagic (reduces bleeding)

    Main Uses:

    1. to stop bleeding and to seal, and heal wounds, burns, cuts, tooth extractions
    2. for herpes virus ulcers (taken internally and applied topically)
    3. for skin fungi, rashes, and dermatitis
    4. for insect bites, poison ivy and other itchy or allergic skin reactions
    5. for stomach ulcers, ulcerative colitis, dysentery and diarrhea
    Properties/Actions Documented by Research:
    anesthetic, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antidysenteric, antifungal, antihemorrhagic (reduces bleeding), antileukemic, antioxidant, antiseptic, antitumorous, antiviral, neurasthenic (reduces nerve pain), wound healer

    Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use:
    analgesic (pain-reliever), anticancerous, anti-itch, antiulcerous, astringent, blood cleanser

    Cautions: The red resin stains clothes/fabric permanently.



    Traditional Preparation: For external use, the resin/sap is rubbed directly on the affected area several times daily and allowed to dry. Please note: the resin is red! It will temporarily stain the skin a reddish-brown (which will wash off), but it will permanently stain clothing. Rubbing the resin in the palm of the hand first or directly where applied will thicken the resin into a thin, lighter colored paste, which helps form a second skin on top of a wound or rash and reduces staining. For internal use, the traditional remedy is 10-15 drops in a small amount of liquid, taken 1-3 times daily (be prepared, however; it tastes quite dreadful).

    Contraindications: None reported.

    Drug Interactions: None reported.


    WORLDWIDE ETHNOMEDICAL USES
    Brazil for bacterial infections, blood cleansing, cancer, digestive disorders, fever, fungal infections, hemorrhages, stomach ulcers, tumors, ulcer (mouth), wounds, and for its astringent (drying) effects.
    Dominican
    Republic
    for wounds, and to stop bleeding
    Ecuador for cancer, inflammation, wounds
    Mexico for fever, infected gums, wounds
    Peru for cancer, diabetes, diarrhea, eczema, fractures, fungal infections, gastrointestinal problems, hemorrhages, hemorrhoids, infections, infected gums, insect bites, laryngitis, rheumatism, skin rashes, skin cancer, throat problems, toothache, tumors, ulcers (intestinal, mouth, and stomach), vaginitis, vaginal infections, vaginal discharge, wounds, and as an antiseptic
    U.S for cancer, diabetic neuropathy, eczema, fungal infections (skin, nail & foot), hemorrhages, inflammation, insect bites, itching, pain, rashes, ulcers (intestinal, mouth, skin, and stomach), wounds, and as an antiseptic




    The above text has been printed from The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs by Leslie Taylor, copyrighted © 2005 All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, including websites, without written permission

    † The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.





    Reference Quotes on Sangre de Grado

    Article: South American tree sap is a pain killer, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic, Natural Science May 15, 2000:
    "Dr. John Wallace of the University of Calgary's Faculty of Medicine predicts that every medicine cabinet and first aid kit in North America will one day be stocked with medicines containing the sap of the South American tree Croton lechleri.

    Known as Sangre de Grado, Spanish for "Blood of the Dragon," because of its thick red sap, Croton lechleri grows throughout the Amazon. Its sap has been used for centuries by indigenous peoples of the Amazon as a herbal medicine to treat wounds, ease pain and relieve gastrointestinal distress. Wallace and his research team are conducting experimental research on Sangre de Grado as a potent inhibitor of inflammation and pain.

    “Not only does Sangre de Grado prevent pain sensation, it also blocks the tissue response to a chemical released by nerves that promotes inflammation. There is currently no other substance that we know of that shares these same activities,” says Wallace. In laboratory tests, Wallace’s research team has demonstrated that Sangre de Grado blocks the activation of nerve fibers that relay pain signals to the brain, therefore functioning as a broad-acting pain killer.

    In a clinical trial performed with pest control workers in Louisiana, a balm made from Sangre de Grado was found to provide relief from the bites and stings of a wide variety of insects within 90 seconds. The study further shows that Sangre de Grado offers pain relief and alleviated symptoms - itching and swelling - for up to six hours. Similar types of pain and inflammation can occur in the gastrointestinal tract - with gastritis, ulcer disease and infectious diarrhea. Wallace says, “We find that in animals with these conditions, the sap promotes gastrointestinal healing.”

    Sangre de Grado has antibacterial actions, showing excellent promise as a first aid treatment for insect bites and stings, lacerations and even burns. Wallace, who performed these studies in collaboration with researchers at Albany Medical College in Albany, NY, says that isolation of the active ingredient in Sangre de Grado could lead to new therapies for a wide range of inflammatory diseases, including asthma, arthritis and ulcerative colitis.

    This research is supported by the Medical Research Council and the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research."


    The Green Pharmacy, James A. Duke, Rodale 1997
    "Dragon's blood (Croton lechleri). Several compounds in it, among them dimethylcedrusine and taspine, have antiviral and wound-healing properties that may be especially useful against the viral sores caused by herpes. The natural mixture of all three coumpounds heals wounds four times faster than the individual compounds alone. I use dragon's blood when I get cuts or abrasions in tropical Peru. Unfortunately, this herb is not widely available in the United States, although I expect that it will be soon. It is applied externally."

    10. "Croton lechieri Muell.-Arg. Euphorbiaceae. "Sangre de drago", "Sangre de grado", "Dragon's blood". The latex is used to heal wounds, and for vaginal baths before childbirth. It is also recommended for intestinal and stomach ulcers (RVM). It yields the hemostatic sap that accelerates wound healing (NIC). For leucorrhea, fractures, and piles (RAR)."

    17."The sangre de grado tree was only a few minutes beyond. A tall slender tree, with smooth pale bark, it didn't look at all juicy, but when Dona Luisa slashed it wtih her machete, sap the color and consistency of blood flowed as from a wound. I was elated as I held a cup to catch the liquid. I'd wanted it for so long! This I knew was a most effective hemostatic agent; it was one of the plants the pharmaceutical company wanted especially, the one I'd used externally to stop the bleeding from a bad cut on my arm. The medicine I had seen given by mouth to stop internal bleeding in a woman hemorrhaging after childbirth. I knew this one could save lots of lives."
    "Two of the plants had been scientifically identified for me by a Peruvian botanist who spent a day or two at the hotel. They were among the more important plant medicines, I thought. And the sangre de grado, which taken by mouth stops internal bleeding of a wound and applied externally disinfects and stops bleeding of a wound, was a Euphorbiacea, Croton salutaris; C.planostigma Klotzch."



    Third-Party Published Research on Sangre de Grado

    All available third-party research on sangre de grado can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the third-party published research on sangre de grado is shown below:

    Anticancerous & Cytotoxic Actions:
    Montopoli, M., et al. "Croton lechleri sap and isolated alkaloid taspine exhibit inhibition against human melanoma SK23 and colon cancer HT29 cell lines." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Dec 18;144(3):747-53.
    Zhang, Y., et al. "Antitumor activity of taspine by modulating the EGFR signaling pathway of Erk1/2 and Akt in vitro and in vivo." Planta Med. 2011 Nov;77(16):1774-81.
    Alonso-Castro, A., et al. "Antitumor effect of Croton lechleri Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Mar 27;140(2):438-42.
    Lu, W., et al. "A novel taspine analog, HMQ1611, inhibits growth of non-small cell lung cancer by inhibiting angiogenesis." Oncol Lett. 2012 Nov;4(5):1109-1113.
    Zhang, Y., et al. "A novel angiogenesis inhibitor impairs lovo cell survival via targeting against human VEGFR and its signaling pathway of phosphorylation." Cell Death Dis. 2012 Oct 11;3:e406.
    He, H., et al. "Tas13D inhibits growth of SMMC-7721 cell via suppression VEGF and EGF expression." Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(5):2009-14.
    Zhan, Y., et al. "A novel taspine derivative, HMQ1611, suppresses adhesion, migration and invasion of ZR-75-30 human breast cancer cells." Breast Cancer. 2012 Aug 9.
    Zhang, Y., et al. "Facile synthesis and biological evaluation of novel symmetrical biphenyls as antitumor agents." Med Chem. 2012 Mar;8(2):145-50.
    Zhang, Y., et al. "Effects of taspine on proliferation and apoptosis by regulating caspase-3 expression and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in A431 cells." Phytother Res. 2011 Mar;25(3):357-64.
    Takami, Y., et al. "Proanthocyanidin derived from the leaves of Vaccinium virgatum suppresses platelet-derived growth factor-induced proliferation of the human hepatic stellate cell line LI90." Hepatol Res. 2010 Apr;40(4):337-45.
    Fayed, W., et al. "Identification of a novel topoisomerase inhibitor effective in cells overexpressing drug efflux transporters." PLoS One. 2009 Oct 2;4(10):e7238.
    Zhang, Y., et al. "[Inhibitory effect of taspine on mouse S180 sarcoma and its mechanism]." Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007 May;32(10):953-6.
    Gonzales, G. F., et al. "Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer." Anticancer Agents Med, Chem. 2006 Sep; 6(5) :429-44.
    Rossi, D., et al. “Evaluation of the mutagenic, antimutagenic and antiproliferative potential of Croton lechleri (Muell. Arg.) latex.” Phytomedicine. 2003 Mar; 10(2-3): 139-44.
    Sandoval, M., et al. “Sangre de grado (Croton palanostigma) induces apoptosis in human gastrointestinal cancer cells.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 80(2-3): 121–9.
    Chen, Z. P., et al. “Studies on the anti-tumour, anti-bacterial, and wound-healing properties of dragon’s blood.” Planta Med. 1994; 60(6): 541–45.
    Pieters, L., et al. “Isolation of a dihydrobenzofuran lignan from South American dragon’s blood (Croton sp.) as an inhibitor of cell proliferation.” J. Nat. Prod. 1993; 56(6): 899–906.
    Itokawa, H., et al. “A cytotoxic substance from sangre de grado.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1991; 39(4): 1041–42.

    Wound Healing, Neuromuscular, & Antioxidant Actions:
    De Marino, S., et al. "Identification of minor secondary metabolites from the latex of Croton lechleri (Muell-Arg) and evaluation of their antioxidant activity." Molecules. 2008 Jun 1;13(6):1219-29.
    Frum, Y., et al. "In vitro 5-lipoxygenase and anti-oxidant activities of South African medicinal plants commonly used topically for skin diseases." Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 2006; 19(6): 329-35.
    Rollinger, J. M., "Taspine: bioactivity-guided isolation and molecular ligand-target insight of a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor from Magnolia x soulangiana." J. Nat. Prod. 2006 Sep; 69(9): 1341-6.
    Dong, Y., et al. “Enhancement of wound healing by taspine and its effect on fibroblast.” Zhong. Yao. Cai. 2005; 28(7): 579-82.
    Dong, Y. L., et al. “Effect of taspine hydrochloride on skin wound healing in rats and its mechanism.” Zhong. Xi. Yi. Jie. He. Xue. Bao. 2005 Sep; 3(5): 386-90.
    Lopes, M. I., et al. “Mutagenic and antioxidant activities of Croton lechleri sap in biological systems.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec; 95(2-3): 437-45.
    Jones, K. “Review of sangre de drago (Croton lechleri)--a South American tree sap in the treatment of diarrhea, inflammation, insect bites, viral infections, and wounds: traditional uses to clinical research.” J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2003 Dec; 9(6): 877-96.
    Desmarchelier, C., et al. “Effects of sangre de drago from Croton lechleri Muell.-Arg. on the production of active oxygen radicals.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997; 58: 103–8.
    Phillipson, J. D. “A matter of some sensitivity.” Phytochemistry. 1995 Apr; 38(6): 1319-43.
    Chen, Z. P., et al. “Studies on the anti-tumour, anti-bacterial, and wound-healing properties of dragon’s blood.” Planta Med. 1994; 60(6): 541–45.
    Porras-Reyes, B. H., et al. “Enhancement of wound healing by the alkaloid taspine defining mechanism of action.” Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 1993; 203(1): 18–25.
    Vaisberg, A. J., et al. “Taspine is the cicatrizant principle in sangre de grado extracted from Croton lechleri.” Planta Med. 1989; 55(2): 140–43.
    Macrae, W. D., et al. “Studies on the pharmacological activity of Amazonian Euphorbiaceae.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1988; 22(2): 143–72.

    Pain-relieving & Anti-inflammatory Actions:
    Pereira, U., et al. "Effects of sangre de drago in an in vitro model of cutaneous neurogenic inflammation." Exp Dermatol. 2010 Sep;19(9):796-9.
    Xiangming, L., et al. “Effects of dragon's blood resin and its component loureirin B on tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.” Sci. China C. Life Sci. 2004 Aug; 47(4): 340-8.
    Tsacheva, I., et al. “Complement inhibiting properties of dragon's blood from Croton draco. ”Z. Naturforsch. 2004; 59(7-8): 528-32.
    Jones, K. “Review of sangre de drago (Croton lechleri)--a South American tree sap in the treatment of diarrhea, inflammation, insect bites, viral infections, and wounds: traditional uses to clinical research.” J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2003 Dec; 9(6): 877-96.
    Risco, E., et al. “Immunomodulatory activity and chemical characterisation of sangre de drago (dragon's blood) from Croton lechleri.” Planta Med. 2003; 69(9): 785-94.
    Miller, M. J., et al. “Inhibition of neurogenic inflammation by the Amazonian herbal medicine sangre de grado.” J. Invest. Dermatol. 2001; 117(3): 725–30.
    Perdue, G. P., et al. “South American plants II: Taspine isolation and anti-inflammatory activity.” J. Pharm. Sci. 1979; 68(1): 124–26.

    Antimicrobial Actions:
    Extracts of sangre de grado have demonstrated antiviral activity against influenza, parainfluenza, Herpes simplex viruses I and II, and Hepatitis A and B. The antiviral and anti-diarrheal properties of sangre de grado have come to the attention of the pharmaceutical industry over the last 10 years. A U.S.-based pharmaceutical company has filed patents on three pharmaceutical preparations that contain antiviral constituents and novel chemicals (a group of plant flavonoids they've named SP-303), extracted from the bark and resin of sangre de grado. Their patented drugs include an oral product for the treatment of respiratory viral infections, a topical antiviral product for the treatment of herpes, and an oral product for the treatment of persistent diarrhea.
    Rodriguez-Garcia, A., et al. "Development and in vitro evaluation of biopolymers as a delivery system against periodontopathogen microorganisms." Acta Odontol Latinoam. 2010;23(2):158-63.
    Gurgel, L. A., et al. “In vitro antifungal activity of dragon's blood from Croton urucurana against dermatophytes.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 97(2): 409-12.
    Williams, J. E. “Review of antiviral and immunomodulating properties of plants of the Peruvian rainforest with a particular emphasis on Una de Gato and Sangre de Grado.” Altern. Med. Rev. 2001; 6(6): 567–79.
    Sidwell R., et al. “Influenza virus-inhibitory effects of intraperitoneally and aerosol-administered SP-303, a plant flavonoid.” Chemotherapy. 1994; 40(1): 42–50.
    Chen, Z. P., et al. “Studies on the anti-tumour, anti-bacterial, and wound-healing properties of dragon’s blood.” Planta Med. 1994; 60(6): 541–45.
    Rao, G. S., et al. “Antimicrobial agents from higher plants. Dragon's blood resin.”J. Nat. Prod. 1982 Sep-Oct; 45(5): 646-8.

    Anti-ulcer & Anti-diarrhea Actions:
    Cottreau, J., et al. "Crofelemer for the treatment of secretory diarrhea." Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Feb;6(1):17-23.
    Tradtrantip, L., et al. "Crofelemer, an antisecretory antidiarrheal proanthocyanidin oligomer extracted from Croton lechleri, targets two distinct intestinal chloride channels." Mol Pharmacol. 2010 Jan;77(1):69-78
    Tran, C. D., et al. "The role of Amazonian herbal medicine Sangre de Grado in Helicobacter pylori infection and its association with metallothionein expression." Helicobacter. 2006 Apr; 11(2): 134-5.
    Paula, A. C., et al. "The gastroprotective effect of the essential oil of Croton cajucara is different in normal rats than in malnourished rats." Br. J. Nutr. 2006 Aug; 96(2): 310-5.
    Fischer, H., et al. “A novel extract SB-300 from the stem bark latex of Croton lechleri inhibits CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in human colonic epithelial cells.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004; 93(2-3): 351-7.
    Jones, K. “Review of sangre de drago (Croton lechleri)--a South American tree sap in the treatment of diarrhea, inflammation, insect bites, viral infections, and wounds: traditional uses to clinical research.” J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2003 Dec; 9(6): 877-96.
    Miller, M. J., et al. “Treatment of gastric ulcers and diarrhea with the Amazonian herbal medicine sangre de grado.” Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 2000; 42: G192–200.
    Gabriel, S. E., et al. “A novel plant-derived inhibitor of cAMP-mediated fluid and chloride secretion.” Am. J. Physiol. 1999 Jan; 276(1 Pt 1): G58-63.

    Vasoconstrictive Action:
    Froldi, G., et al. "Activity of sap from Croton lechleri on rat vascular and gastric smooth muscles." Phytomedicine. 2009 Aug;16(8):768-75.



    * The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.




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