Mulungu (Erythrina mulungu) bark powder Mulungu Powder

Erythrina mulungu

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

In both North and South American herbal medicine systems mulungu is considered to be an excellent sedative to calm agitation and nervous coughs and to treat other nervous system problems including insomnia and anxiety.* Researchers have published animal studies about the alkaloid chemicals in mulungu attributed to this anti-anxiety action.* For more information mulungu (Erythrina mulungu), please refer to the Database File for Mulungu in the Tropical Plant Database. To see pictures of mulungu, click here. Check out the new Discussion Forums to see if anyone is talking about how they are using this natural rainforest remedy.

Traditional Uses:* for mental disorders (depression, anxiety, stress, hysteria, panic disorders, compulsive disorders, etc.); as a sedative for insomnia, restlessness, and sleep disorders; for liver disorders (hepatitis, obstructions, high liver enzyme levels, sclerosis, etc.); for high blood pressure and heart palpitations; for drug and nicotine withdrawal

Suggested Use: This plant is best prepared as a decoction. Use one teaspoon of powder for each cup of water. Bring to a boil and gently boil in a covered pot for 20 minutes. Allow to cool and settle for 10 minutes and strain warm liquid into a cup (leaving the settled powder in the bottom of the pan). It is traditionally taken in 1/2 cup amounts twice daily. For more complete instructions on preparing herbal decoctions, see the Methods for Preparing Herbal Remedies Page.

Contraindications:
  • This plant is traditionally used as a sedative and may cause drowsiness.
  • Mulungu has demonstrated hypotensive actions in animal studies. It is probably contraindication in persons with low blood pressure.
Drug Interactions: None documented; however, mulungu may enhance the effect of some antianxiety drugs and blood pressure drugs.





Third-Party Published Research*

All available third-party research on mulungu can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published research on mulungu is shown below:


Pain-Relieving, Antispasmodic, Anticonvulsant, & Anti-inflammatory Actions:
Santos Rosa, D., et al. "Erysothrine, an alkaloid extracted from flowers of Erythrina mulungu Mart. ex Benth: evaluating its anticonvulsant and anxiolytic potential." Epilepsy Behav. 2012 Mar;23(3):205-12.
Nagaraja, T., et al. "Anticonvulsant activity of Erythrina mysorensis bark extract in an animal model of epilepsy." J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2012 Jan;3(1):62-4.
Faggion, S., et al. "Anticonvulsant profile of the alkaloids (+)-erythravine and (+)-11-?-hydroxy-erythravine isolated from the flowers of Erythrina mulungu Mart ex Benth (Leguminosae-Papilionaceae)." Epilepsy Behav. 2011 Mar;20(3):441-6.
Vasconcelos, S. M., et al. "Anticonvulsant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Erythrina velutina and Erythrina mulungu." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Mar 21;110(2):271-4.
Marchioro, M., et al. “Anti-nociceptive activity of the aqueous extract of Erythrina velutina leaves.” Fitoterapia. 2005 Dec; 76(7-8): 637-42.
Chaddock, J. A., et al. “Retargeted clostridial endopeptidases: inhibition of nociceptive neurotransmitter release in vitro, and antinociceptive activity in in vivo models of pain.” Mov. Disord. 2004 Mar; 19 Suppl 8: S42-7.
Weber, D., et al. “Phomol, a new antiinflammatory metabolite from an endophyte of the medicinal plant Erythrina crista-galli.” J. Antibiot. 2004; 57(9): 559-63.
Vasconcelos, S. M., et al. “Antinociceptive activities of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Erythrina velutina and Erythrina mulungu in mice.” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2003; 26(7): 946-9.
Njamen, D., et al. “Anti-inflammatory activity of erycristagallin, a pterocarpene from Erythrina mildbraedii.” Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2003 May; 468(1): 67-74.
Duggan, M. J., et al. “Inhibition of release of neurotransmitters from rat dorsal root ganglia by a novel conjugate of a Clostridium botulinum toxin A endopeptidase fragment and Erythrina cristagalli lectin.” J. Biol. Chem. 2002 Sep; 277(38): 34846-52.

Anti-Anxiety Actions:
Santos Rosa, D., et al. "Erysothrine, an alkaloid extracted from flowers of Erythrina mulungu Mart. ex Benth: evaluating its anticonvulsant and anxiolytic potential." Epilepsy Behav. 2012 Mar;23(3):205-12.
Nagaraja, T., et al. "Evaluation of Anxiolytic effect of Erythrina mysorensis Gamb. in mice." Indian J Pharmacol. 2012 Jul;44(4):489-92.
Flausino, O., et al. "Effects of erythrinian alkaloids isolated from Erythrina mulungu (Papilionaceae) in mice submitted to animal models of anxiety." Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Feb;30(2):375-8.
Flausino, O., et al. "Anxiolytic effects of erythrinian alkaloids from Erythrina mulungu." J Nat Prod. 2007 Jan;70(1):48-53.
Ribeiro, M. D., “Effect of Erythrina velutina and Erythrina mulungu in rats submitted to animal models of anxiety and depression.” Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 2006; 39(2): 263-70.
Onusic, G.M., et al. “Effects of chronic treatment with a water-alcohol extract from Erythrina mulungu on anxiety-related responses in rats.” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2003; 26(11): 1538-42.
Onusic, G. M., et al. “Effect of acute treatment with a water-alcohol extract of Erythrina mulungu on anxiety-related responses in rats.” Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 2002; 35(4): 473–77.
Kittler, J. T., et al. “Mechanisms of GABA receptor assembly and trafficking: implications for the modulation of inhibitory neurotransmission.” Mol. Neurobiol. 2002; 26(2–3): 251–68.

Memory Enhancement Actions:
Santos, W., et al. "In vitro and ex vivo anticholinesterase activities of Erythrina velutina leaf extracts." Pharm Biol. 2012 Jul;50(7):919-24.
Hidalgo, A., et al. "Differential expression of glycans in the hippocampus of rats trained on an inhibitory learning paradigm." Neuropathology. 2006 Dec; 26(6): 501-7.

Sedative & Central Nervous System Depressant Actions:
Vasconcelos, S. M., et al. “Central activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Erythrina velutina and Erythrina mulungu in mice.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2004; 56(3): 389-93.

Anti-Osteoporotic Actions:
Zhang, Y., et al. "Anti-osteoporotic effect of Erythrina variegata L. in ovariectomized rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan; 109(1): 165-9.

Nicotine Withdrawal Actions:
Meza, R., et al. "Functional expression of the a7 and a4-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the neonatal rat carotid body." Neurochem Int. 2012 Jan;60(2):115-24.
Iturriaga-Vásquez P, et al. "Molecular determinants for competitive inhibition of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors." Mol Pharmacol. 2010 Sep;78(3):366-75.
Freyer, A, J., et al. "Isolation, structure elucidation, and biological evaluation of 15-amido-3-demethoxy- 2alpha,3alpha-methylenedioxyerythroculine, a new alkaloid from Hyperbaena valida." J. Nat. Prod. 2006; 69(10): 1514-6.
Daly. J. W. “Nicotinic agonists, antagonists, and modulators from natural sources.” Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 2005 Jun; 25(3-4): 513-52.
Mansbach, R. S., et al. “Effects of the competitive nicotinic antagonist erysodine on behavior occasioned or maintained by nicotine: comparison with mecamylamine.” Psychopharmacology. 2000; 148(3): 234–42.
Decker, M. W., et al. “Erysodine, a competitive antagonist at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.” Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1995; 280(1): 79–89.

Liver Protective Actions:
Sanzen, T., et al. “Expression of glycoconjugates during intrahepatic bile duct development in the rat: an immunohistochemical and lectin-histochemical study.” Hepatology. 1995; 3: 944–51.

Antimicrobial Actions:
de Lima, M. R., et al. “Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 105(1-2): 137-47
Sato, M., et al. “Antibacterial property of isoflavonoids isolated from Erythrina variegata against cariogenic oral bacteria.” Phytomedicine. 2003; 10(5): 427-33.  
Holetz, F. B., et al. “Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2002 Oct; 97(7): 1027-31.
Tanaka, H., et al. “Antibacterial activity of isoflavonoids isolated from Erythrina variegata against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 2002; 35(6): 494-8.
Mitscher, L. A., et al. “Antimicrobial agents from higher plants. Erycristagallin, a new petrocarpene from the roots of the Bolivian coral tree, Erythrina crista-galli.” Heterocycles. 1984; 22(8): 1673–75.
Mitscher, L. A., et al. “Erycristin, a new antimicrobial pterocarpan from Erythrina crista-galli.” Phytochemistry. 1988; 27(2): 381–85.



* The statements contained herein have not been evaluated
by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is
not intended to treat, cure, mitigate or prevent any disease.
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Last updated 12-18-2012