Matico - Piper aduncum - Matico - Piper angustifolium - Matico - Piper aduncum - Matico - Piper angustifolium - Matico - Piper aduncum - Matico - Piper angustifolium Matico - Piper aduncum - Matico - Piper angustifolium - Matico - Piper aduncum - Matico - Piper angustifolium - Matico - Piper aduncum - Matico - Piper angustifolium

Database File for: 

MATICO 
(Piper aduncum)

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Matico - Piper aduncum - Matico - Piper angustifolium - Matico - Piper aduncum - Matico - Piper angustifolium - Matico - Piper aduncum - Matico - Piper angustifolium PLANT
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MATICO

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  • Family: Moraceae
    Taxon: Piper aduncum L.
    Synonyms:Artanthe adunca Miq., Piper angustifolium Ruiz & Rav., Piper celtidifolium Kunth., Piper elongatum Vahl.
    Common names: anisillo, aperta-ruão, bamboo piper, cordoncillo, cordoncillo negro, erba di soldato, erva-de-jaboti, erva-de-soldado, false kava, gaa ma da oedoe, guayayo, gusanillo, herbe du soldat, higuillo, higuillo de hoja, hoja santa, jaborandi falso, jawawa, jointwood, kakoro, malembe toto, man-anihs, matico pepper, matico, maticoblätter, matika, matiko, menuda, moco-moco, moho-moho, mucumucu, pimenta de fruto ganxoso, pimenta-de-fruto-ganchoso, pimenta-de-macaco, pimenta-matico, Santa Maria negro, shiatani, soldaten kraut, soldier's herb, spiked pepper, tapa-curaco, tokondé, tupa burraco, upnpoingpoing, wer-ui-qui-yik
    Parts Used: Bark


    MATICO
    HERBAL PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS
    Main Actions Other Actions Standard Dosage
  • heals wounds
  • reduces mucous
  • Leaves
  • stops bleeding
  • calms coughs
  • Infusion: 1 cup three times daily
  • stops vomiting
  • decongests
  • Fluid Extract: 2-3 ml twice daily
  • eases nausea
  • aids urinary tract
  • Capsules: 1 g 3 times daily
  • aids digestion
  • kills viruses
  •  
  • expels gas
  •    
  • kills germs
  •    
  • kills bacteria
  •    
  • kills yeast/fungi
  •    

    Matico belongs to the Piperaceae or pepper family. The Piper genus which includes more than 2,000 species of shrubs, trees and vines and includes two other well known plants— black pepper (Piper nigrum) and kava-kava (Piper methysticum).

    Matico is a tropical, evergreen, shrubby tree that grows to the height of 6 to 7 m with lanceolate leaves that are 12 to 20 cm long. It is native to most all of tropical South America as well as Southern Mexico, the Caribbean, and much of tropical Latin America. Once cultivated as an ornamental worldwide, it has naturalized in tropical Asia, Polynesia, and Melanesia and can even be found in southern Florida, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. In some countries matico is considered as an introduced noxious weed. The tree produces cord-like, white to pale yellow, inflorescence spikes that contain many minute flowers that are wind-pollinated and that soon develop into numerous tiny drupes with black seeds. The seeds are then scattered easily by bats and birds. From these many seeds, it can form large stands of quickly-growing shrubby trees that can choke out other native vegetation. Established plants also thicken into clumps or stands by suckers arising from the root crown.

    TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

    Like many plants in the pepper family, most all parts of the Matico tree have a aromatic, spicy, peppery taste and smell. The fruits are often used as a condiment and pepper substitute. Throughout the Amazon, many of the Indian tribes use matico leaves as an antiseptic wound healer to stop bleeding, prevent infections and to speed healing. The leaves are either crushed or powdered and sprinkled directly onto the cut, wound, ulcer, and/or boil, or a tea (infusion) is made from the leaves and used as a wash. Sometimes the leaves are heated, pounded and then used as a poultice instead. The Shipibo-Conibo Indians also prepare the leaves in an infusion and use it to treat inflammation, diarrhea, gastritis, vomiting, fever, menstrual colic, internal infections and as a postpartum tonic.

    In herbal medicine systems in South America, matico is quite well known and respected for wound healing as well a numerous other conditions. It is widely used as a remedy for all types of digestive disorders such as stomachaches, vomiting, dyspepsia, diarrhea, gastric ulcers, intestinal gas and even stomach cancer. It is also considered an excellent genitourinary tonic and used for kidney stones, urinary tract infections, cystitis, urethritis, leucorrhea, vaginitis, and various venereal diseases such as gonorrhea and trichomonas. In addition, it is also employed for various upper respiratory conditions such as bronchitis, pulmonary hemorrhages, pleurisy, pneumonia, colds and flu, and tonsilitis and sore throats.

    The Spanish name, matico, comes from a South American legend. The plant was supposedly discovered by a wounded Spanish soldier named Matico. He learned (probably from the Indians) that applying the leaves to his wounds stopped them from bleeding, and it began to be called “matico” or “soldier’s herb or tree.” In was introduced into the profession of medicine in the United States and Europe by a Liverpool physician in 1839 as a styptic and astringent for wounds. Early medical texts in the U.S. include matico as it appeared in the United States Pharmacopoeia in the early nineteenth century. It was also recommended for leucorrhea, gonorrhea, hemorrhoids, blenorrhagia, dyspepsia, internal hemorrhages, (pulmonary, gastric ulcers, and postpartum bleeding) as well as diarrhea, dysentery, and cholera.

    PLANT CHEMICALS

    Matico contains many active chemicals including flavonoids, sequiterpenes, monoterpenes, heterocycles, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, and benzenoids. A group of chemicals called chromenes have been found in the leaves (and its essential oil) which have evidenced toxic effects to cancer cells and bacteria. Other chemicals, including a group of bezenoid chemicals, have also demonstrated antibacterial and cytotoxic actions as well. Matico also contains a chemical called safrol which has been used successfully in powerful insecticides, fragrances, soaps and detergent products.

    The chemicals identified in matico thus far include: (+)caryophyllenol I, (-)cubebol, 1-2-3-tri-methoxy-5-(2-propenyl)-benzene, 1-8 cineol, 2-6-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-phenol, 2-acetoxy-1-3-dimethoxy-5-(prop-2-enyl)-benzene, 3-(6-hydroxy-3-7-dimethyl-2-7-benzoic acid methyl ester, 5-methoxy-6-(2'-propenyl)-benzodioxole, 5-methoxy-6-(2-propenyl)-benzo-1-3-dioxole, 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-dihydro-flavone, aduncamide, adunctin A thru E, aduncumene, alpha-copaene, alpha-cubebene, alpha-humulene, alpha-muurolene, alpha-phellandrene, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpinene, alpha-tocopherol, aromadendrene, asebogenin, benzoic acids, beta-bisabolol, beta-caryophyllene, beta-cymene, beta-elemene, beta-gurjunene, beta-pinene, beta-selinene, beta-sitosterol, bicyclogermacrene, borneol, borneol acetate, cadinene, camphene, camphor, caryophyllene, chalcones, chromenes, cis-ocimene, copaene, dihydro-chalcones, dill apiol, eremophilene, eupatoriochromene, geraniol acetate, germacrene D, germacrene B, globulol, iso-borneol, limonene, linalool, lutein, methyl-lindaretin, myrcene, myristicin, nerol acetate, nerolidol, nervogenic acid, octa-trans-2-7-dienoic acid,6(s)-hydroxy-2-6-dimethyl methyl ester, pinostrobin, piperaduncin A thru C, piperitone, safrole, sakuranetin, seichelene, spathulenol, stigmasterol, tectochrysin, terpineol acetate, thymol, trans-ocimene, trans-phytol, undecanone, verbascoside, and viridiflorol.

    BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

    Matico has demonstrated broad spectrum antimicrobial actions which may help to explain its long history of use for various infections and infectious diseases. In various laboratory studies over the years, matico leaves and the essential oil from the leaves or fruits have demonstrated antibacterial actions against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It has also been reported with actions against fungi and yeast. In addition, researchers in France reported matico had antiviral actions against polio virus.

    Other research has focused on matico being a possible treatment for a tropical disease called leishmaniasis that is quite prevalent in the Amazon and the South American tropics. Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease spread by the bite of infected sand flies. There are several different forms of leishmaniasis. The most common forms are cutaneous leishmaniasis, which causes skin sores, and visceral leishmaniasis, which affects some of the internal organs of the body (for example, spleen, liver, bone marrow). In two studies, matico (and an extracted chalcone chemical from the plant) was reported to either kill the parasite or treat the disease in laboratory animals. Another rather nasty tropical disease of the tropics is schistosomiasis. This parasitic disease is carried and spread by fresh water snails found in the many rivers and streams of the Amazon basin. In several other studies matico was reported with molluscicidal actions against the snail and the parasite it carries. It also was reported with insecticidal actions against the mosquito that carries and spreads yellow fever.

    CURRENT PRACTICAL USES

    While very little research has been conducted on matico specifically to validate its many traditional uses, its documented antibacterial and antiviral actions do support its use for various upper respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases, as well as an antiseptic and disinfectant for wounds. Despite any scientific validation, it still remains a main-stay in herbal medicine practices in South America for many types of digestive problems and it is quite well known and well respected for those types of conditions.


    MATICO PLANT SUMMARY
    Main Preparation Method: infusion or fluid extract

    Main Actions (in order): stomachic, carminative, vulnerary, antiseptic, hemostat

    Main Uses:

    1. for digestive problems (vomiting, nausea, stomachaches, dyspepsia)
    2. as a carminative and stomachic to expel intestinal gas and aid digestion
    3. as an antiseptic wound healer for cuts, scrapes, ulcers, boils, etc.
    4. as a hemostat for internal bleeding (uterine, gastric, pulmonary)
    5. for colds, flu, coughs, bronchitis, pneumonia and other respiratory problems
    Properties/Actions Documented by Research: antibacterial, anticandidal, antifungal, anti-leishmaniasis, antiyeast, antiviral, cytotoxic, insecticidal, molluscicidal

    Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use: anti-hemorrhagic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cicatrizant, chologogue, decongestant, depurative, disinfectant, diuretic, expectorant, hemostat, nervine, panacea, purgative, resolvent, stomachic, stimulant, styptic, tonic, vulnerary

    Cautions: None reported.



    Traditional Preparation: Matico leaves are traditionally prepared in infusions and decoctions. Manufactured products available in North and South America also include fluid extracts and tinctures, as well as capsules. See Traditional Herbal Remedies Preparation Methods page if necessary for definitions.

    Contraindications: None reported.

    Drug Interactions: None reported.

    WORLDWIDE ETHNOMEDICAL USES
    Brazil as a anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, astringent, balsamic, carminative, chologogue, diuretic, hemostat, resolvent, stimulant, stomachic, tonic and vulnerary; for blenorrhagia, bronchitis, coughs, cystitis, diarrhea, digestive disorders, dysentery, erysipelas, hematuria, hemorrhoids, hemorrhages, inflammation, leucorrhea, liver pain, menorrhagia, prolapsed uterus, pylitis, skin ulcers, snakebite, sores, urinary disorders, urethritis, urinary tract infections, uterine tonic, and wounds
    Colombia as a diuretic and stimulant, for constipation, headaches, kidney stones, leucorrhea, nose bleeds, pneumonia, pulmonary hemorrhages, and stomach-aches
    Dominican Republic as an astringent, diuretic, stimulant, and stomachic
    Guatemala for gonorrhea
    Guyana as a vulnerary for sores and wounds
    Haiti as an aphrodisiac and hemostat; for abdominal pain, blenorrhagia, dropsy, leucorrhea, liver problems, rheumatism, skin problems, sores, and wounds
    Honduras as a digestive aid, childbirth aid, and skin cleanser; for aches, hemorrhages, menstrual pain
    Jamaica for stomachaches
    Mexico as an astringent, balsamic, diuretic, stimulant and styptic; for venereal diseases
    New Guinea as an antiseptic cleanser; for colds, diarrhea, and wounds
    Panama for bronchitis, cancer, decubitus ulcers, digestive disorders, pleurisy, pneumonia, respiratory problems, stomach ailments, trichomonas, ulcers, uterine fibroids, uterine ulcers, vaginitis, and wounds
    Peru as a anti-hemorrhagic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, carminative, cicatrizant, depurative, disinfectant, diuretic, expectorant, hemostat, nervine, panacea, purgative, stomachic, stimulant, styptic, tonic and vulnerary; for abscesses, blenorrhagia, boils, bronchitis, cholera, colds, conjunctivitis, constipation, cystitis, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, enteritis, fever, gastritis, gastric ulcers, gonorrhea, herpes ulcers, hemorrhoids, infections, inflam-mation, internal hemorrhages, kidney pain, kidney stones, leucorrhea, malaria, menstrual colic, neuralgia, postpartum hemorrhages, rheumatic pain, skin ulcers, sore throat, stomachaches, stomach cancer, stomach disorders, tonsilitis, ulcers, urinary infections, uterine disorders, uterine fibroids, vaginitis, venereal diseases, vomiting, and wounds
    Puerto Rico as a tonic; for diarrhea, dysentery, vomiting, ulcers, and to control bleeding.




    The above text has been authored by Leslie Taylor, ND and copyrighted © 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, including websites, without written permission.

    † The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.




    Referenced Quotes on Matico

    10. "Piper angustifolium R.&P. Piperaceae. "Cordoncillo", "Matico". Leaves applied externally as antiseptic vulnerary; the tea consumed for bronchitis, dysentery, gonorrhea, inflammation, and malaria (FEO, RAR). Infusion washed onto rheumatic areas around Pucallpa (VDF)."

    21. "Piper Linnaeus
    Most of the more than 1200 species of Piper are climbing shrubs or small woody trees occurring in the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres. The constituents of the genus (Joshi, 1981; Calle, 1983) and specifically the alkaloids (Snieckus, 1971) have been reviewed. Extracts have been shown to have antifertility effects (Chandoke, 1978) and insecticidal activity (Su, 1981).
    Piper aduncum Linnaeus, Sp. PI. 1 (1753) 29. GS 977
    The Karijonas of the Rio Itilla consider the dried leaves an excellent styptic."

    25. Piper aduncum L.
    AREA: Amazonia and Pernambuco to Espirito Santo.
    NAMES: Aperta-ruao, erva-de-jaboti, matico-falso, pimenta-longa, jaborandi- do-mato, pimenta-de-macaco.
    USES: Roots externally applied for erysipelas, internally as a stimulant and cholagogue. Leaves used in the same way as the roots, and also as an astringent, for strengthening the womb to prevent uterine prolapse. Leaves once recommended against cholera.
    CHEM.: Phenylpropanoid and benzoic acid derivatives have been described from the leaves (Ref: PIPE 3).




    Third-Party Published Research on Matico

    All available third-party research on matico be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the third-party published research on matico is shown below:

    Cytotoxic & Antitumor Actions:
    Orjala, J., et al. “Two chromenes and a prenylated benzoic acid derivative from Piper aduncum.” Phytochemistry. 1993; 34(3): 813-818.
    Orjala, J., et al. “Cytotoxic and antibacterial dihydrochalcones from Piper aduncum.” J. Nat. Prod. 1994; 57(1): 18-26.
    Orjala, J., et al. “Aduncamide, a cytotoxic and antibacterial beta-phenylethylamine-derived amide from Piper aduncum.Nat. Prod. Lett. 1993; 2(3): 231-236.

    Antibacterial Actions:
    Orjala, J., et al. “New monoterpene-substituted dihydrochalcones from Piper aduncum.Helv. Chim. Acta 1993; 76(4): 1481-1488.
    Kloucek, P., et al. “Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Calleria district.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jun; 99(2): 309-12.
    Lemos, T. L. G., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Brazilian plants.” Phytother. Res. 1990; 4(2): 82-84.
    Lentz, D. L., et al. “Antimicrobial properties of Honduran medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol, 1998; 63(3): 253-263.
    Trillini, B., et al. “Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Piper angustifolium.” Planta Med. 1996; 62(4): 372-373.
    Orjala, J., et al. “Cytotoxic and antibacterial dihydrochalcones from Piper aduncum.” J. Nat. Prod. 1994; 57(1): 18-26.
    Orjala, J., et al. “Three new prenylated benzoic acid derivatives and molluscicidal sesquiterpenoids from Piper aduncum leaves.” Planta Med. Suppl. 1992; 58(1) A714-.
    Orjala, J., et al. “Five new prenylated p-hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives with antimicrobial and molluscicidal activity from Piper aduncum leaves.” Planta Med. 1993; 59(6): 546-551.
    Orjala, J., et al. “Aduncamide, a cytotoxic and antibacterial beta-phenylethylamine-derived amide from Piper aduncum.Nat. Prod. Lett. 1993; 2(3): 231-236.

    Antifungal Actions:
    Cde Almeida, R. R., et al. "Chemical variation in Piper aduncum and biological properties of its dillapiole-rich essential oil." Chem. Biodivers. 2009; 6(9):1427-34.
    Orjala, J., et al. “Two chromenes and a prenylated benzoic acid derivative from Piper aduncum.” Phytochemistry. 1993; 34(3): 813-818.
    Lemos, T. L. G., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Brazilian plants.” Phytother. Res. 1990; 4(2): 82-84.
    Lentz, D. L., et al. “Antimicrobial properties of Honduran medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol, 1998; 63(3): 253-263.
    Trillini, B., et al. “Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Piper angustifolium.” Planta Med. 1996; 62(4): 372-373.
    Lago, J. H., et al. “Benzoic acid derivatives from Piper species and their fungitoxic activity against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum.J. Nat. Prod. 2004; 67(11):1783-8.
    Navickiene, H., et al. “Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum.” Quim. Nova. 2006; 20( 3): 467-470.

    Anti-Candida & Anti-yeast Actions
    Braga, F. G., et al. "Antileishmanial and antifungal activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Brazil." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May; 111(2): 396-402.
    Lemos, T. L. G., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Brazilian plants.” Phytother. Res. 1990; 4(2): 82-84.
    Lentz, D. L., et al. “Antimicrobial properties of Honduran medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol, 1998; 63(3): 253-263.
    Trillini, B., et al. “Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Piper angustifolium.” Planta Med. 1996; 62(4): 372-373.

    Antiviral Actions:
    Lohezic, L. E., et al. “Antiviral and cytotoxic activities of some Indonesian plants.” Fitoterapia. 2002 Aug; 73(5): 400-5.

    Anti-Leishmanial & Anti-malarial Actions:
    Parise-Filho, R., et al. "Dillapiole as Antileishmanial Agent: Discovery, Cytotoxic Activity and Preliminary SAR Studies of Dillapiole Analogues." Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 2012 Dec;345(12):934-44.
    Valadeau, C., et al. "Medicinal plants from the Yanesha (Peru): evaluation of the leishmanicidal and antimalarial activity of selected extracts." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jun; 123(3): 413-22.
    Flores, N., et al. "Antiparasitic activity of prenylated benzoic acid derivatives from Piper species." Phytochemistry. 2009; 70(5):621-7.
    Braga, F. G., et al. "Antileishmanial and antifungal activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Brazil." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May; 111(2): 396-402.
    Torres-Santos, E. C., et al. Selective effect of 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone isolated from Piper aduncum on Leishmania amazonensis.” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1999; 43(5): 1234-1241.
    Torres-Santos, E. C., et al. Improvement of in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of 2', 6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone by entrapment in poly(D,L-lactide) nanoparticles.” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1999; 43(7): 1776-8.

    Anti-schistosomiasis, Anti-trypanosomal & Molluscicidal Actions:
    Rapado, L., et al. "Molluscicidal and ovicidal activities of plant extracts of the Piperaceae on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)." J Helminthol. 2011 Mar;85(1):66-72.
    Batista, J. M. Jr, et al. "Natural chromenes and chromene derivatives as potential anti-trypanosomal agents." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2008; 31(3): 538-40.
    Orjala, J., et al. “Two chromenes and a prenylated benzoic acid derivative from Piper aduncum.” Phytochemistry. 1993; 34(3): 813-818.
    Orjala, J., et al. “Three new prenylated benzoic acid derivatives and molluscicidal sesquiterpenoids from Piper aduncum leaves.” Planta Med. Suppl. 1992; 58(1) A714-.
    Orjala, J., et al. “Five new prenylated p-hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives with antimicrobial and molluscicidal activity from Piper aduncum leaves.” Planta Med. 1993; 59(6): 546-551.

    Insecticidal Actions:
    Araujo, M., et al. "Acaricidal activity and repellency of essential oil from Piper aduncum and its components against Tetranychus urticae." Exp Appl Acarol. 2012 Jun;57(2):139-55.
    Misni, N., et al. "The effect of Piper aduncum Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) essential oil as aerosol spray against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse." Trop Biomed. 2011 Aug;28(2):249-58.
    Misni, N., et al. "Repellency of essential oil of Piper aduncum against Aedes albopictus in the laboratory." J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2009 Dec;25(4):442-7.
    Silva, W. C., et al. "Toxicity of Piper aduncum L. (Piperales: Piperaceae) from the Amazon forest for the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)." Vet. Parasitol. 2009; 164(2-4): 267-74.
    Rafael, M. S., et al. "Potential control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) with Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) extracts demonstrated by chromosomal biomarkers and toxic effects on interphase nuclei." Gene. Mol. Res. 2008; 7(3): 772-81.
    Cde Almeida, R. R., et al. "Chemical variation in Piper aduncum and biological properties of its dillapiole-rich essential oil." Chem. Biodivers. 2009; 6(9):1427-34.
    Hidayatulfathi, O., et al. “Adulticidal activity of some Malaysian plant extracts against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus.” J. Trop. Biomed. 2004 Dec; 21(2): 61-7.
    Estrela, J., et al. "Toxicity of essential oils of Piper aduncum and Piper hsipidinervum against Sitophilus zeamais." Pesq. Agroped. Bras. 2006; 41(2): 217-222.

    Anti-inflammatory Actions:
    Parise-Filho, R., et al. "The anti-inflammatory activity of dillapiole and some semisynthetic analogues." Pharm Biol. 2011 Nov;49(11):1173-9.

    Constituents Found
    Rali, T., et al. "Volatile chemical constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae) from Papua New Guinea." Molecules. 2007; 12(3):389-94.



    * The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.




    © Copyrighted 1996 to present by Leslie Taylor, Milam County, TX 77857.
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    Last updated 12-17-2012