Epazote - Chenopodium ambrosioides - Epazote - Chenopodium ambrosioides - Epazote - Chenopodium ambrosioides - Epazote - Chenopodium ambrosioides Epazote - Chenopodium ambrosioides - Epazote - Chenopodium ambrosioides - Epazote - Chenopodium ambrosioides - Epazote - Chenopodium ambrosioides

Database File for:

EPAZOTE
(Chenopodium ambrosioides)

Main databaseCommon nameBotanical nameEthnic usesConditionsActions
  
Epazote, Chenopodium, ambrosioides PLANT
IMAGES

Chenopodium ambrosioides - Epazote
Photos




WEB
RESOURCES
Epazote

  • Product Search

  • Medline Abstracts

  • PubMed FullText

  • U.S. Patents

  • Ethnobotany DB

  • Phytochemical DB

  • PFAF DB

  • W³TROPICOS DB

  • USF DB

  • GRIN DB

  • USDA DB

  • ITIS DB



    WEBSITE LINKS

  • Home Page
  • About the Author
  • Plant Images
  • Rainforest Products
  • Rainforest Gallery
  • Rainforest Facts
  • Article Section
  • Rainforest Links
  • Search Site
  • Conditions of Use











    Free Service

    Español
    Português
    Deutsch
    Italiano
    Français
    Norsk



  • Family: Chenopodiaceae
    Genus: Chenopodium
    Species: ambrosioides
    Synonyms: Ambrina ambrosioides, A. parvula, A. spathulata, Atriplex ambrosioides, Blitum ambrosioides, Chenopodium anthelminticum, C. integrifolium, C. spathulatum, C. suffruticosum
    Common Names: Epazote, erva-de-santa maria, wormseed, apasote, chenopode, feuilles a vers, herbe a vers, meksika cayi, paico, pazote, semen contra, semin contra, simon contegras, mexican tea, american wormseed, jesuit’s tea, payco, paiku, paico, amush, camatai, cashua, amasamas, anserina, mastruco, mastruz, sie-sie, jerusalem tea, spanish tea, ambroisie du mexique, wurmsamen, hierba hormiguera
    Parts Used: Leaf, whole plant, seed


    From The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs:

    EPAZOTE
    HERBAL PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS
    Main Actions Other Actions Standard Dosage
  • expels worms
  • increases perspiration
  • Leaves
  • kills parasites
  • increases urination
  • Decoction: 1/2 cup once daily
  • kills amebas
  • increases breast milk
  •  
  • mildly laxative
  • promotes menstruation
  •  
  • kills bacteria
  • stimulates digestion
  •  
  • prevents ulcers
  • calms nerves
  •  
  • repels insects
  • mildly sedative
  •  
     
  • heals wounds
  •  
     
  • kills cancer cells
  •  

    Epazote is an annual herb that grows to about 1 m in height. It has multi-branched, reddish stems covered with small, sharply toothed leaves. Epazote bears numerous small yellow flowers in clusters along its stems. Following the flowers, it produces thousands of tiny black seeds in small fruit clusters. It is easily spread and re-grown from the numerous seeds it produces which is why some consider it an invasive weed. The whole plant gives off a strong and distinctive odor.

    Epazote is native to Mexico and the tropical regions of Central and South America where it is commonly used as a culinary herb as well as a medicinal plant. It has been widely naturalized throughout the world and can be found growing in parts of the southern United States. In Brazil the plant's name is erva-de-santa-maria or mastruço; in Peru its called paico. It is known throughout Mexico and Latin America as epazote. The Siona name of this plant means worm remedy and here in America it is referred to as wormseed - both referring to it long history of use against intestinal worms.

    TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

    In the Yucatan, indigenous Indian groups have long used epazote for intestinal parasites, asthma, excessive mucus, chorea (a type of rheumatic fever that affects the brain) and other nervous afflictions. The Tikuna Indians in the Amazon use it to expel intestinal worms and as a mild laxative. The Siona-Secoya and Kofán Indian tribes in South America also use epazote for intestinal worms (usually by taking one cup of a leaf decoction each morning before eating for three consecutive days). The Kofán Indians also use the plant as a perfume-tying it to their arm for an 'aromatic' bracelet. (However, most Americans consider the smell of the plant quite strong and objectionable - calling it skunk-weed!) Creoles use it as a worm remedy for children and a cold medicine for adults while the Wayãpi use the plant decoction for stomach upsets and internal hemorrhages caused by falls. In Piura a leaf decoction is used to expel intestinal gas, as a mild laxative, as an insecticide, and as a natural remedy for cramps, gout, hemorrhoids, intestinal worms and parasites and nervous disorders. Some indigenous tribes bathe in a decoction of epazote to reduce fever and will also throw a couple of freshly uprooted green plants onto their fires to drive mosquitoes and flies away.

    In herbal medicine systems throughout Latin America epazote is a popular household remedy used to rid children and adults of intestinal parasites, worms and amebas. The plant is also used in cooking - it is said to prevent intestinal gas if the leaves are cooked and/or eaten with beans and other common gas-forming foods. The leaves and seeds of epazote have long been used in Central and South American medicine as a vermifuge (to expel intestinal worms). In Brazilian herbal medicine, it is considered an important remedy for worms (especially hookworms, round worms and tape worms) and is also used for coughs, asthma, bronchitis and other upper respiratory complaints; for angina, to relieve intestinal gas, to promote sweating and as a general digestive aid. It is used for similar conditions in Peruvian herbal medicine today. Local people in the Amazon region in Peru also soak the plant in water for several days and use it as a topical arthritis remedy. In other South American herbal medicine systems the plant is used for asthma, bronchitis, diarrhea, dysentery, and menstrual disorders. Externally it has been used as a wash for hemorrhoids, bruises, wounds, contusions and fractures.

    The plant's ability to expel intestinal worms has been attributed to the essential oil of the seed and 'Oil of Chenopodium' has been used for several centuries worldwide as a worm remedy. The oil was once in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia as a drug used against amebas, roundworms and hookworms. The therapeutic dose of the essential oil however does have other toxic effects, therefore it fell from favor as an internal remedy many years ago. Intake of 10 mg of the oil has been known to cause cardiac disturbances, convulsions, respiratory disturbances, sleepiness, vomiting and weakness and even death.

    PLANT CHEMICALS

    Epazote is rich in chemicals called monoterpenes. The seed and fruit contain a large amount of essential oil which has a main active chemical in it called ascaridole. This chemical was first isolated in 1895 by a German pharmacist living in Brazil and it has been attributed with most of the vermifuge (worm-expelling) actions of the plant. Ascaridole has been also documented with sedative and pain-relieving properties as well as antifungal effects. Application of the oil topically was reported to effectively treat ringworm within 7-12 days in a clinical study with guinea pigs. In other in vitro clinical studies, ascaridole was documented with activity against a tropical parasite called Trypanosoma cruzi as well as strong anti-malarial and insecticidal actions.

    The main chemicals found in epazote include alpha-pinene, aritasone, ascaridole, butyric-acid, d-camphor, essential oils, ferulic-acid, geraniol, l-pinocarvone, limonene, malic-acid, menthadiene, menthadiene hydroperoxides, methyl-salicylate, myrcene, p-cymene, p-cymol, safrole, saponins, spinasterol, tartaric-acid, terpinene, terpinyl-acetate, terpinyl-salicylate, triacontyl-alcohol, trimethylamine, urease, and vanillic-acid.

    BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

    A decoction and infusion of the plant was analyzed in vitro to determine if they had toxic effects. At various concentrations the extracts caused cellular aberrations in the test tube, indicating possible toxic effects. However, in the 1970's the World Health Organization reported that a decoction of 20 g of leaves rapidly expelled parasites without any apparent side effects in humans. In 1996 extracts from the leaves of epazote were given to 72 children and adults with intestinal parasitic infections. A stool analysis was performed before and eight days after treatment. On average, an antiparasitic efficacy was seen in 56% of cases. With respect to the tested parasites, epazote leaf extract was 100% effective against the common intestinal parasites, Ancilostoma and Trichuris, and, 50% effective against Ascaris.

    In a study in 2001, thirty children (ages 3-14 years) with intestinal roundworms were treated with epazote. Doses given were 1 ml of extract per kg of body weight for younger children (weighing less than 25 pounds), and 2 ml of extract per kg of body weight in older children. One dose was given daily on an empty stomach for three days. Stool examinations were conducted before and 15 days after treatment. Disappearance of the ascaris eggs occurred in 86.7%, while the parasitic burden decreased in 59.5%. In addition, this study also reported that epazote was 100% effective in eliminating the common human tapeworm (Hymenolepsis nana).

    In other research epazote has been documented with toxic effects against snails. and was shown to have an in vitro toxic action against drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2002, a U.S. patent was filed on a Chinese herbal combination containing epazote for the treatment of peptic ulcers. This combination (containing Chenopodium essential oil) was reported to inhibit stress-induced, as well as various chemical and bacteria-induced ulcer formation. The most recent research has documented the anticancerous and antitumorous properties of epazote. In one study an extract of the entire plant of epazote showed the ability to kill human liver cancer cells in the test tube. Another study reported that the essential oil of epazote (as well as its main chemical, ascaridole) showed strong antitumorous actions against numerous different cancerous tumor cells (including several multi-drug resistant tumor cell lines) in the test tube.

    CURRENT PRACTICAL USES

    Due to the toxicity of the essential oil (usually distilled from the seeds), the oil of this plant is no longer recommended for internal use. The leaves of the plant (containing smaller amounts of essential oil) is the preferred natural treatment for intestinal parasites in herbal medicine systems today throughout the world. It is best to find a source for only epazote leaves, as products sold as 'whole herb' can contain a significant amount of seeds (and resulting essential oil) depending on when it was harvested. For intestinal worms and parasites, most herbalists and practitioners recommend ½ cup of a standard leaf decoction taken in the morning on an empty stomach for three days in a row. On the fourth day, a mild laxative is given to evacuate the bowel (and the dead and dying parasites and worms). This is repeated two weeks later to address any worm eggs that may have survived and hatched.



    EPAZOTE PLANT SUMMARY
    Main Preparation Method: infusion or capsules

    Main Actions (in order):
    antiparasitic, vermifuge (expels worms), insecticidal, digestive stimulant, hepatoprotective (liver protector)

    Main Uses:

    1. for intestinal worms and parasites
    2. for skin parasites, lice, and ringworm
    3. to tone, balance, and strengthen the liver (and for liver flukes and parasites)
    4. to tone, balance, and strengthen the stomach and bowel ( and for acid reflux, intestinal gas, cramping, chronic constipation, hemorrhoids, etc)
    5. for coughs, asthma, bronchitis, and other upper respiratory problems
    Properties/Actions Documented by Research:
    amebicide, antibacterial, anticancerous, antimalarial, antiparasitic, antitumorous, ascaricide (kills Ascaris parasitic worms), insecticidal, molluscicidal (kills snails), vermifuge (expels worms)

    Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use:
    analgesic (pain-reliever), antacid, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic (liver detoxifier), antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiulcer, carminative, contraceptive, diaphoretic (promotes sweating), digestive stimulant, diuretic, gastrototonic (tones, balances, strengthens), hepatoprotective (liver protector), laxative, lactagogue (promotes milk flow), menstrual stimulant, nervine (balances/calms nerves), sedative, tonic (tones, balances, strengthens overall body functions), wound healer

    Cautions: It should not be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding. Don't use essential oil internally.



    Traditional Preparation:: For intestinal parasites: one-half cup of a leaf decoction once daily on an empty stomach for three days. A decoction of the leaves is employed (in ½ cup dosages) for menstrual, respiratory, and digestive problems on an as-needed basis.

    Contraindications:

    • The plant and essential oil should not be used during pregnancy and lactation. Not only does the plant have toxic activity, it has also been traditionally used to induce abortions.
    • While epazote has been used by indigenous tribes as a contraceptive, this use is not verified by clinical research (nor should it be relied on for such). However, the use of the plant is probably contraindicated for couples trying to get pregnant.
    • The oil of epazote is considered extremely toxic and should not be taken internally.

    Drug Interactions: None known.




    WORLDWIDE ETHNOMEDICAL USES
    Belize for digestive problems, hangovers, intestinal gas, intestinal parasites, and as a sedative
    Brazil for abortions, angina, bacterial infections, bronchitis, bruises, circulation problems, colds, coughs, contusions, digestive sluggishness, dyspepsia, falls, flu, fractures, gastric disorders, hemorrhoids, hemorrhages, increasing perspiration, insomnia, intestinal gas, intestinal parasites, laryngitis, menstrual difficulties, palpitations, sinusitis, skin parasites, skin inflammation, skin ulceration, spasms, throat inflammation, tuberculosis, worms, wounds, and as an insect repellent and sedative
    Ecuador for indigestion, intestinal gas, intestinal worms, slow digestion
    Haiti for parasites, skin sores, stomachache, worms, and as an antiseptic
    Mexico for colic, increasing perspiration, menstrual disorders, nerves, parasites, toothache, tumors, water retention, worms
    Panama for asthma, dysentery, worms
    Peru for abscesses, arthritis, birth control, blood cleansing, cholera, colic, contusions, cough, cramps, diabetes, diarrhea, digestive problems, dysentery, edema, excessive mucous, fractures, gastritis, gout, hemorrhoids, hysteria, increasing perspiration, intestinal gas, liver support, lung problems, memory, menstrual disorders, nervousness, numbness, pain, paralysis, parasites, pleurisy, rheumatism, skin disorders, spasms, stomach pain, tumors, urinary tract inflammation, urinary infections, vaginal discharge, vomiting, water retention, worms, wounds, and as an antacid and antiseptic, insect repellent, and sedative
    Trinidad for amebic infections, asthma, childbirth, dysentery, dyspepsia, fatigue, fungal infections, lung problems, palpitations, sores, worms
    Turkey for asthma, digestive problems, menstrual difficulties, nervous disorders, worms
    United States for childbirth, increasing milk flow, menstrual disorders, nerves, pain, parasites, worms
    Venezuela for aiding digestion, worms
    Elsewhere for abortions, amebic infections, anemia, appendicitis, arthritis, asthma, breathing difficulty, bug bites, childbirth, cholera, colds, colic, conjunctivitis, coughs, cramps, dyspepsia, dysentery, fatigue, fever, fungal infections, hookworms, increase perspiration, intestinal parasites, intestinal gas, intestinal ulceration, lactation aid, malaria, measles, menstrual irregularities, nervousness, neurosis, pains, palpitations, paralysis, rheumatism, roundworms, snakebite, stomach problems, spasms, tonic, tumor, water retention, worms, and as an antiseptic, insecticide, and sedative




    The above text has been quoted from The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs by Leslie Taylor, copyrighted © 2005
    All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, including websites, without written permission.


    * The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.




    © Copyrighted 1996 to present by Leslie Taylor, Milam County, TX 77857.
    All rights reserved. Please read the Conditions of Use, and Copyright Statement for this web page and web site.
    Last updated 12-17-2012