Copaiba - Copaifera officinalis, Copaifera langsdorffii, Copaifera reticulata Copaiba - Copaifera officinalis, Copaifera langsdorffii, Copaifera reticulata Copaiba - Copaifera officinalis, Copaifera langsdorffii, Copaifera reticulata Copaiba - Copaifera officinalis, Copaifera langsdorffii, Copaifera reticulata

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COPAIBA
(Copaifera officinalis)

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COPAIBA

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  • Family: Fabaceae
    Genus: Copaifera
    Species: officinalis, langsdorffii, reticulata
    Synonyms: Copaifera jacquinii, C. nitida, C. paupera, C. sellowii, Copaiva officinalis
    Common Names: Copaiba, copaipera, cupayba, copauba, copal, balsam copaiba, copaiva, copaiba-verdadeira, Jesuit’s balsam, copaibeura-de-Minas, cobeni, Matidisguate, matisihuati, mal-dos-sete-dias, aceite de palo, pau-de-oleo, básamo de copayba
    Part Used: Resin, bark


    From The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs:

    COPAIBA
    HERBAL PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS
    Main Actions Other Actions Standard Dosage
  • relieves pain
  • increases urination
  • Resin
  • reduces inflammation
  • expels worms
  • Internal: 5-15 drops 2-3
  • kills germs
  • reduces acid
  •   times daily
  • kills bacteria
  • supresses coughs
  • External: apply diluted resin
  • kills fungi
  • expels phlegm
  •   on affected areas
  • inhibits tumor growth
  •    
  • dries secretions
  •    
  • heals wounds
  •    
  • protects gastric tract
  •    
  • mildly laxative
  •    
  • sooths and softens
  •    
  • disinfects
  •    

    Copaiba trees are considerably branched and grow from 15-30 m high. They produce many small, white flowers on long panicles and small fruit pods with 2-4 seeds inside. There are 35 species of Copaifera, found mainly in tropical South America (particularly in Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Guyana, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela). Several different species are used as traditional medicines interchangeably: C. langsdorffii is found mostly in the cerrados of central Brazil, C. reticulata is indigenous to the Amazon region, and C. officinalis occurs widely throughout South America, including the Amazon. All three varieties are used interchangeably.

    The part of the tree that is often employed medicinally is the oleoresin that accumulates in cavities within the tree trunk. It is harvested by tapping or drilling holes into the wood of the trunk and collecting the resin that drips out, much in the same manner as harvesting maple syrup. A single copaiba tree can provide about 40 liters of oleoresin annually, making it a sustainable rainforest resource that can be harvested without destroying the tree or the forest in which it grows. When tapped, the initial oily resin is clear, thin, and colorless; it thickens and darkens upon contact with air. Commercially sold resins are a thick, clear liquid, with a color that varies from pale yellow to golden light brown. The variety gathered in Venezuela is said to be thicker and darker in color. Although it is often referred to a balsam or oil, it is actually a oleoresin.

    TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

    On the Rio Solimoes in northwest Amazonia, copaiba resin is used topically by indigenous tribes as a wound healer, to stop bleeding, for skin sores and psoriasis, and to treat gonorrhea. Healers and curanderos in the Amazon today use copaiba resin for all types of pain, for skin disorders and insect bites, and to cool inflammation.

    In Brazilian herbal medicine systems the resin is used as a strong antiseptic and expectorant for the respiratory tract (including bronchitis and sinusitis), as an anti-inflammatory and antiseptic for the urinary tract (for cystitis, bladder, and kidney infections), as a topical anti-inflammatory agent for all types of skin problems. Copaiba resin is sold in gel capsules in stores and pharmacies in Brazil and recommended for all types of internal inflammation, stomach ulcers and cancer. One of its more popular home-remedy uses in Brazil is as an antiseptic gargle for sore throats and tonsillitis (15 drops of resin in warm water). In Peruvian traditional medicine, three or four drops of the resin are mixed with a spoonful of honey and taken as a natural sore throat remedy. It is also employed in Peruvian herbal medicine systems to reduce inflammation and increase urination, and in the treatment of incontinence, urinary problems, stomach ulcers, syphilis, tetanus, bronchitis, catarrh, herpes, pleurisy, tuberculosis, hemorrhages, and leishmaniasis (applied as a plaster).

    Copaiba resin was first recorded in European medicine in 1625 (brought back from the New World by the Jesuits and called Jesuit's balsam) and has been used there since in the treatment of chronic cystitis, bronchitis, chronic diarrhea, and as a topical preparation for hemorrhoids. In the United States, it was an official drug in the U. S. Pharmacopeia from 1820 to 1910. Noted ethnobotanist and author Mark Plotkin reports that copaiba oil has been used in the United States as a disinfectant, diuretic, laxative, and stimulant-in addition to being used in cosmetics and soaps. The Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients cites that copaiba has diuretic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, disinfectant, and stimulant activities.

    PLANT CHEMICALS

    The resin contains up to 15% volatile oil; the remaining materials are resins and acids. The active biological properties of copaiba resin are attributed to a group of phytochemicals called sesquiterpenes (over 50% of the resin may be sesquiterpenes), diterpenes, and terpenic acids. These chemicals include caryophyllene, calamenene, and copalic, coipaiferic, copaiferolic, hardwickic, and kaurenoic acids. Several of these chemicals are novel ones found only in copaiba. Copaiba resin is the highest known natural source of caryophyllene, comprising up to 480,000 parts per million. Caryophyllene is a well known plant chemical which has been documented strong anti-inflammatory effects (among other actions).

    The main chemicals found in copaiba include: alloaromadendrene, alpha-bergamotene, alpha-cubebene, alpha-multijugenol, alpha-selinene, ar-curcumene, beta-bisabolene, beta-cubebene, beta-elemene, beta-farnesene, beta-humulene, beta-muurolene, beta-selinene, calamenene, calamesene, carioazulene, caryophyllenes, coipaiferic acid, copaene, copaiferolic acid, copalic acid, copaibic acids, cyperene, delta-cadinene, delta-elemene, enantio-agathic acid, gamma-cadinene, gamma-elemene, gamma-humulene, hardwickic acids, illurinic acid, kaurenoic acids, kaurenic acid, kolavenol 1, maracaibobalsam, methlyl copalate, paracopaibic acids, polyalthic acid, and trans-alpha-bergamotene.

    BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

    Much of the clinical research performed to date has verified the traditional uses of copaiba. In 2002, researchers in Brazil confirmed that it was highly effective as a topical wound healer in animal studies. Long used internally and externally for inflammation of all sorts, clinical research validates the resin's anti-inflammatory effects against various laboratory-induced inflammation in other animal studies. The anti-inflammatory effects have been related to the sesquiterpene chemicals in copaiba oil which scientists have noted can vary significantly-not only between different copaiba tree species, but also within a given species and, even among individual trees. Sesquiterpene content can range anywhere from 30-90%. This may account for the results obtained by other Brazilian researchers who tested eight different commercial samples of copaiba oil and only three of the eight samples demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory effects. Of these sesquiterpenes, caryophyllene is the most well studied, demonstrating pain-relieving properties, antifungal properties against nail fungus, as well as anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective properties in other animal studies.

    The gastroprotective effects of caryophyllene documented in 1996 also help justify another traditional use of copaiba oil - as a natural remedy for stomach ulcers. In this animal study, not only did caryophyllene evidence significant anti-inflammatory effects without any damage to the stomach lining (most other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents cause stomach problems) - it actually significantly inhibited stomach injury induced by various chemicals. Two years later, another Brazilian research group reported that giving natural copaiba resin to rats provided a dose-dependent, significant protection against chemical- and stress-induced gastric damage and evidenced an anti-ulcerous effect.

    Copaiba's traditional uses as an antiseptic for sore throat, upper respiratory and urinary tract infections can be explained partly by the resin's antibacterial properties documented in the 1960s and 1970s. Researchers again confirmed (in 2000 and 2002) that the resin as a whole (and, particularly, two of its diterpenes-copalic acid and kaurenic acid) demonstrated significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria. One of copaiba's other chemicals, kaurenoic acid, has also demonstrated selective antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria in other recent studies.

    Another recent area of research on copaiba resin has focused on its anticancerous and antitumor properties. Researchers in Tokyo isolated six chemicals (clerodane diterpenes) in the oleoresin of copaiba in 1994 and tested them against carcinomas in mice to determine their antitumor activity. One particular compound, called kolavenol, was twice as effective at increasing the lifespan in mice with carcinomas (by 98%) as the standard chemotherapy drug, 5-Fluorouacil (5-FU). The natural resin also increased lifespan by 82% - which was still higher than 5-FU (which increased lifespan by 46%). Interestingly, the in vivo tests provided better anti-tumor effects than in previous test-tube studies. The Spanish team of researchers that documented copaiba's antimicrobial effects in 2002 also tested for in vitro antitumor effects. These scientists reported that another phytochemical in the resin, methlyl copalate, had in vitro activity against human lung carcinoma, human colon carcinoma, human melanoma, and mouse lymphoid neoplasm cell lines. Brazilian researchers reported in 2002 that one of copaiba's active chemicals, kaurenoic acid, also inhibited the growth of human leukemic cells by 95%, and human breast and colon cancer cells by 45% in vitro. Kaurenoic acid can comprise as much as 1.4% of the natural copaiba oleoresin.

    CURRENT PRACTICAL USES

    In all herbal medicine systems where it is employed, copaiba resin is taken internally only in very small dosages-usually only 5-15 drops (approximately one-half to 1 ml) 1-3 times daily. In large doses, it has been documented to cause nausea, vomiting, fever, and a measles-like skin rash. A French dermatologist reported that these side effects can also occur with the absorption of copaiba resin through the skin in sensitive individuals. It has, however, been approved officially in the U.S. as a food additive and is used in small amounts as a flavoring agent in foods and beverages. It has also been employed as a fixative in perfumes.

    Today in the United States, copaiba resin is used mostly as a fragrance component in perfumes and in cosmetic preparations (including soaps, bubble baths, detergents, creams, and lotions) for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and emollient (soothing and softening) properties. Natural health practitioners are just beginning to learn about the many ways that this important rainforest resource is employed in South American herbal medicine systems and are beginning to incorporate them in their practices here. Used prudently and in small quantities, it is a wonderful natural remedy for stomach ulcers, inflammation of all kinds, nail fungus (applied topically) and for its documented wound-healing, antimicrobial and anticancerous properties.



    COPAIBA PLANT SUMMARY
    Main Preparation Method: cold-filtered resin

    Main Actions (in order):
    anti-inflammatory, analgesic (pain-reliever), anticancerous, antimicrobial, wound healer

    Main Uses:

    1. as a topical analgesic (pain-reliever) and anti-inflammatory for wounds, rashes, dermatitis, bug bites, boils, and psoriasis
    2. as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and antimicrobial agent for internal and external bacterial infections
    3. for nail and skin fungi
    4. for skin cancer
    5. for stomach ulcers and stomach cancer
    Properties/Actions Documented by Research:
    analgesic (pain-reliever), anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancerous, antifungal, antitumorous, antiulcerous, gastroprotective (protects the gastric tract), wound healer

    Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use:
    anesthetic, antacid, antiseptic, antiviral, astringent, carminative (expels gas), cough suppressant, disinfectant, diuretic, emetic (causes vomiting), emollient, expectorant, laxative, stimulant

    Cautions: May cause a measles-like rash in those allergic to the resin.



    Traditional Preparation: In South America, 5-15 drops of the oleoresin in a cup of hot water is usually taken 2-3 times daily. It is applied directly to the skin for skin problems and wounds (normally prepared with 1 part copaiba resin to 5 parts glycerine or grapeseed oil). It is also employed topically as a massage oil for painful or inflamed muscles and joints - normally combined with another carrier oil (one part copaiba to ten parts carrier oil such as almond or grapeseed oil). For nail fungus and skin cancer, the resin is applied full strength directly on the affected area(s) without diluting it in another oil or glycerine.

    Contraindications:

    • Avoid contact with eyes and mucous membranes, as the resin can act as an irritant.
    • Those sensitive to the resin may experience a measles-like rash accompanied by irritation, itching and/or tingling when using topically or taking internally. Discontinue use if these effects occur.
    • Do not take internally in large dosages (more than 5 ml). Large dosages have been reported to cause nausea, vomiting, fever, and rashes. Discontinue or reduce dosage if these effects occur.
    • One chemical in copaiba resin has been documented to cause hemolysis of red blood cells (human and mice) in vitro. Although this effect has not been studied in vivo, it is probably best to avoid long-term oral use of the resin unless you are under the direct care of a physician who can monitor this possible effect.

    Drug Interactions: None reported.


    WORLDWIDE ETHNOMEDICAL USES
    Amazonia for coughs, excessive mucous, flu, gonorrhea, incontinence, inflammation, psoriasis, skin sores, syphilis, urinary tract disorders, wounds, and as a diuretic and disinfectant
    Brazil for bacterial infections, bladder infections, bronchitis, cancer, cough, cystitis, dandruff, dermatitis, dermatosis, diarrhea, dysentery, flu, gastric disorders, gonorrhea, hypertension, incontinence, inflammation, intestinal parasites, kidney inflammation, lung disorders, pain, pneumonia, psoriasis, respiratory problems, sinusitis, skin disorders, skin ulcers, sore throat, stomach ulcers, syphilis, tetanus, tumors, urinary infections, urinary inflammation, vaginal discharge, wounds, and as an antiseptic
    Europe for bladder irritation, bronchitis, chilblains, constipation, cystitis, diarrhea, excessive mucous (bladder, vagina, respiratory tract), edema, gonorrhea, hemorrhoids, intestinal gas, itch, stimulant, urinary inflammation, vaginal discharge, venereal diseases, and as an antiseptic and diuretic
    Peru for bronchitis, excessive mucous, diuretic, edema, gonorrhea, hemorrhages, herpes, incontinence, inflammation, intestinal gas, insect bites, leishmaniasis, muscle pain, pleurisy, syphilis, tetanus, tuberculosis, ulcers, urinary infections, vaginal discharge, venereal disease, wounds
    U. S. as an antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, disinfectant, diuretic, expectorant, laxative, stimulant
    Elsewhere for constipation, dermatitis, eczema, gonorrhea, urinary insufficiency, venereal diseases, wounds, and as a massage oil




    The above text has been preprinted from The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs by Leslie Taylor, copyrighted © 2005
    All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, including websites, without written permission.

    * The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.




    Published Third-Party Research on Copaiba*

    All available third-party research on copaiba can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published research on copaibais shown below:

    Anti-inflammatory & Pain-relieving Actions:
    Gomes, N., et al. "Characterization of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of fractions obtained from Copaifera multijuga Hayne." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jan 12.
    Leandro, L., et al. "Chemistry and biological activities of terpenoids from copaiba (Copaifera spp.) oleoresins." Molecules. 2012 Mar 30;17(4):3866-89.
    Kobayashi, C., et al. "Pharmacological evaluation of Copaifera multijuga oil in rats." Pharm Biol. 2011 Mar;49(3):306-13.
    Chavan, M., et al. "Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark." Phytomedicine. 2010 Feb; 17(2): 149-151.
    Rogerio, A., et al. "Preventive and therapeutic anti-inflammatory properties of the sesquiterpene alpha-humulene in experimental airways allergic inflammation." Br. J. Pharmacol. 2009 Oct; 158(4): 1074-87.
    de Lima Silva, J., et al. "Effects of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. on ischemia-reperfusion of randomized skin flaps in rats." Aesthetic Plast. Surg. 2009 Jan; 33(1): 104-9.
    Fernandes, E., et al. "Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea." Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2007 Aug; 569(3): 228-36.
    Veiga Jr., V., et al. "Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of copaiba oils from Copaifera cearensis Huber ex Ducke, Copaifera reticulata Ducke and Copaifera multijuga Hayne--a comparative study." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jun; 112(2): 248-54.
    Gomes, N., "Antinociceptive activity of Amazonian Copaiba oils." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Feb; 109(3): 486-92.
    Veiga Junior, V., et al. "The inhibition of paw oedema formation caused by the oil of Copaifera multijuga Hayne and its fractions." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2006; 58(10): 1405-10.
    Paiva, L., et al. “Anti-inflammatory effect of kaurenoic acid, a diterpene from Copaifera langsdorffi on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.” Vascul. Pharmacol. 2002 Dec; 39(6):303-7.
    Veiga, V., et al. “Phytochemical and antioedematogenic studies of commercial copaiba oils available in Brazil.” Phytother. Res. 2001; 15(6): 476–80.
    Ghelardini, C., et al. “Local anaesthetic activity of beta-caryophyllene.” Farmaco. 2001; 56(5-7): 387-9.
    Cascon, V., et al. “Characterization of the chemical composition of oleoresins of Copaifera guianensis Desf., Copaifera duckei Dwyer and Copaifera multijuna Hayne.” Phytochemistry. 2000; 55(7): 773–78.
    Basile, A. C., et al. “Anti-inflammatory activity of oleoresin from Brazilian Copaifera.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1988; 22: 101–9.
    Fernandes, R. M., Contribuicao para o conhecimento do efito antiiinflamatorio e analgesico do balsamo de copaiba e alguns de seus constituintes quimicos. Thesis, 1986. Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.

    Anti-Psoriasis Actions:
    Gelmini, F., et al. "GC-MS profiling of the phytochemical constituents of the oleoresin from Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. and a preliminary in vivo evaluation of its antipsoriatic effect." Int J Pharm. 2012 Aug 20.

    Cytotoxic & Anticancerous Actions:
    dos Santos Júnior, H., et al. "Evaluation of native and exotic Brazilian plants for anticancer activity." J Nat Med. 2010 Apr;64(2):231-8.
    Tundis, R., et al. "In vitro cytotoxic effects of Senecio stabianus Lacaita (Asteraceae) on human cancer cell lines." Nat. Prod. Res. 2009; 23(18): 1707-18.
    Gomes, M., et al. "Antineoplasic activity of Copaifera multijuga oil and fractions against ascitic and solid Ehrlich tumor." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Sep; 119(1): 179-84.
    Legault, J., et al. "Potentiating effect of beta-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of alpha-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2007 Dec; 59(12): 1643-7.
    Cavalcanti, B. C., et al. “Genotoxicity evaluation of kaurenoic acid, a bioactive diterpenoid present in Copaiba oil.” Food Chem. Toxicol. 2006; 44(3): 388-92.
    Krauchenco, S., et al. “Three-dimensional structure of an unusual Kunitz (STI) type trypsin inhibitor from Copaifera langsdorffii.” Biochimie. 2004; 86(3): 167-72.
    Legault, J., et al. "Potentiating effect of beta-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of alpha-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2007 Dec; 59(12): 1643-7.
    Lima, S. R., et al. “In vivo and in vitro studies on the anticancer activity of Copaifera multijuga Hayne and its fractions.” Phytother. Res. 2003 Nov; 17(9): 1048-53.
    Costa-Lotufo, L. V., et al. “The cytotoxic and embryotoxic effects of kaurenoic acid, a diterpene isolated from Copaifera langsdorffi.Toxicon. 2002; 40(8): 1231–34.
    de Almeida Alves, T. M., et al. “Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants.”Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 2000; 95(3): 367–73.
    Ohsaki, A., et al. “The isolation and in vivo potent antitumor activity of clerodane diterpenoids from the oleoresin of Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera langsdorfii Desfon.” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 1994; 4: 2889–92.

    Actions Against Acne:
    da Silva, A., et al. "Application of the essential oil from copaiba (Copaifera langsdori Desf.) for acne vulgaris: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial." Altern Med Rev. 2012 Mar;17(1):69-75.

    Actions Against Endometriosis
    Nogueira, N., et al. "Changes in the volume and histology of endometriosis foci in rats treated with copaiba oil (Copaifera langsdorffii)." Acta Cir Bras. 2011;26

    Antimicrobial Actions:
    Pieri, F. et al. "Bacteriostatic effect of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis) against Streptococcus mutans." Braz Dent J. 2012;23(1):36-8.
    Santos, R., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of Amazonian oils against Paenibacillus species." J Invertebr Pathol. 2012 Mar;109(3):265-8.
    Souza, A., et al. "Antimicrobial evaluation of diterpenes from Copaifera langsdorffii oleoresin against periodontal anaerobic bacteria." Molecules. 2011 Nov 18;16(11):9611-9.
    Souz, a., ET AL. "Antimicrobial activity of terpenoids from Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. against cariogenic bacteria." Phytother Res. 2011 Feb;25(2):215-20.
    Astani, A., et al. "Screening for antiviral activities of isolated compounds from essential oils." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2010.
    Correia, A.., et al. "Amazonian plant crude extract screening for activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria." Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci. 2008 Nov-Dec; 12(6): 369-80.
    Santos, A., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of Brazilian copaiba oils obtained from different species of the Copaifera genus." Mem .Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2008 May; 103(3):277-81.
    Kuete, V., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract, fractions and compounds from the stem bark of Irvingia gabonensis (Ixonanthaceae)." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Oct; 114(1): 54-60.
    Cotoras, M., et al. “Characterization of the antifungal activity on Botrytis cinerea of the natural diterpenoids kaurenoic acid and 3beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic acid.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004 May; 52(10): 2821-6.
    Sartori, M. R., et al. “Antifungal activity of fractions and two pure compounds of flowers from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae).” Pharmazie. 2003; 58(8): 567-9.
    Tincusi, B. M., et al. “Antimicrobial terpenoids from the oleoresin of the Peruvian medicinal plant Copaifera paupera." Planta Med. 2002; 68(9): 808–12.
    Wilkins, M., et al. “Characterization of the bactericidal activity of the natural diterpene kaurenoic acid.” Planta Med. 2002 68(5): 452–54.
    Yang, D., et al. “Use of caryophyllene oxide as an antifungal agent in an in vitro experimental model of onychomycosis.” Mycopathologia. 1999; 148(2): 79–82.
    Davino, S. C., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of kaurenoic acid derivatives substituted on carbon-15.” Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 1989; 22(9): 1127–29.
    Maruzzella, J. C., et al. “Antibacterial activity of essential oil vapors.” J. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1960; 49: 692–94.

    Anti-spasmodic & Muscle-Relaxant Actions:
    Leonhardt, V., et al. "Antispasmodic effects of essential oil of Pterodon polygalaeflorus and its main constituent beta-caryophyllene on rat isolated ileum." Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol. 2009 Dec 11
    Tirapelli, C. R., et al. “Pharmacological comparison of the vasorelaxant action displayed by kaurenoic acid andpimaradienoic acid.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2005; 57(8): 997-1004.
    Ambrosio, S. R., et al. “Role of the carboxylic group in the antispasmodic and vasorelaxant action displayed by kaurenoic acid.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2004; 56(11): 1407-13.
    Tirapelli, C. R., et al. “Analysis of the mechanisms underlying the vasorelaxant action of kaurenoic acid in the isolated rat aorta.” Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2004 May; 492(2-3): 233-41.
    de Alencar, et al. “Smooth muscle relaxant effect of kaurenoic acid, a diterpene from Copaifera langsdorffii on rat uterus in vitro.” Phytother. Res. 2003; 17(4): 320-4.

    Cellular Protective, Anti-ulcer & Wound Healing Actions:
    Alves, J., et al. "In vivo protective effect of Copaifera langsdorffii hydroalcoholic extract on micronuclei induction by doxorubicin." J Appl Toxicol. 2012 May 19.
    Guimarães-Santos, A., et al. "Copaiba oil-resin treatment is neuroprotective and reduces neutrophil recruitment and microglia activation after motor cortex excitotoxic injury." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:918174.
    Comelli, E., et al. "Rupture point analysis of intestinal anastomotic healing in rats under the action of pure Copaíba (Copaifera langsdorfii) oil." Acta Cir Bras. 2010 Aug;25(4):362-7.
    Pereira, S., et al. "Limited benefit of copaifera oil on gingivitis progression in humans." J. Contemp. Dent. Pract. 2010 Jan 1; 11(1): E057-64.
    de Lima Silva, J., et al. "Effects of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. on ischemia-reperfusion of randomized skin flaps in rats." Aesthetic Plast. Surg. 2009 Jan; 33(1): 104-9.
    Cho, J. Y., et al. "Amelioration of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by oral administration of beta-caryophyllene, a sesquiterpene." Life Sci. 2006 Nov 29;
    Chang, H. J., et al. "Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for neuroprotective activity of terpenoids." Life Sci. 2006 Nov 10;
    de Araujo, F. A., et al. ”Copaiba oil effect on aminotransferases of rats with hepatic ischemia and reperfusion with and without ischemic preconditioning.” Acta Cir. Bras. 2005 Jan-Feb; 20(1): 93-9.
    Brito, M. V., et al. “Copaiba oil effect on urea and creatinine serum levels in rats submitted to kidney ischemia and reperfusion syndrome” Acta Cir. Bras. 2005 May-Jun; 20(3): 243-6
    Paiva, L. A., et al. “Attenuation of ischemia/reperfusion-induced intestinal injury by oleo-resin from Copaifera langsdorffii in rats.” Life Sci. 2004 Sep 3; 75(16): 1979-87.
    Paiva, L. A., et al. “Protective effect of Copaifera langsdorffii oleo-resin against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jul; 93(1): 51-6.
    Paiva, L. A., et al. “Investigation on the wound healing activity of oleo-resin from Copaifera langsdorfii in rats.” Phytother. Res. 2002; 16(8): 737–39.
    Paiva, L. A., et al. “Gastroprotective effect of Copifera langsdorffii oleo-resin on experimental gastric ulcer models in rats.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998; 62(1): 73–8.
    Tambe, Y., et al. “Gastric cytoprotection of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene, beta-caryophyllene.” Planta Med. 1996; 62(5): 469–70.

    Immunomodulatory Actions:
    do Rosário, M., et al. "Storage xyloglucans: potent macrophages activators." Chem Biol Interact. 2011 Jan 15;189(1-2):127-33.
    Rosario, M., et al. "Effect of storage xyloglucans on peritoneal macrophages." Phytochemistry. 2008 Jan; 69(2): 464-72.
    Takei, M., et al. "T-cadinol and calamenene induce dendritic cells from human monocytes and drive Th1 polarization." Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2006 May; 537(1-3): 190-9.

    Anti-anxiety Actions:
    Curio, M., et al. "Acute effect of Copaifera reticulata Ducke copaiba oil in rats tested in the elevated plus-maze: an ethological analysis." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2009 Aug; 61(8): 1105-10.

    Anti-parasitic & Insecticidal Actions:
    Cunha, N., et al. "In vitro schistosomicidal activity of some brazilian cerrado species and their isolated compounds." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:173614.
    Rondon, F., et al. "In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi." Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2012 Sep;21(3):185-91.
    dos Santos, A., et al. "Copaiba Oil: An Alternative to Development of New Drugs against Leishmaniasis." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:898419.
    Valotto, C., et al. "[Ultrastructural alterations in larvae of Aedes aegypti subject to labdane diterpene isolated from Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae) and a fraction enriched with tannins of Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae)]." Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2011 Mar-Apr;44(2):194-200
    dos Santos, A., et al. "Leishmania amazonensis: effects of oral treatment with copaiba oil in mice." Exp Parasitol. 2011 Oct;129(2):145-51.
    dos Santos, A., et al. "Effect of Brazilian copaiba oils on Leishmania amazonensis." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Nov; 120(2): 204-8.
    Geris, R., et al. "Diterpenoids from Copaifera reticulata Ducke with larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera, Culicidae)." Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. 2008 Jan-Feb; 50(1): 25-8.
    da Silva, H., et al. "Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)." Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. 2007 May-Jun; 40(3): 264-7
    de Freitas Fernandes, F., et al. "Acaricidal activity of an oleoresinous extract from Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) against larvae of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)." Vet. Parasitol. 2007 Jun; 147(1-2): 150-4.
    de Mendonca, F. A., et al. "Activities of some Brazilian plants against larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti." Fitoterapia. 2005 Dec; 76(7-8): 629-36.

    Non-Toxic Action:
    Almeida, M., et al. "Genotoxicity assessment of Copaiba oil and its fractions in Swiss mice." Genet Mol Biol. 2012 Jul;35(3):664-72.
    Sachetti, C., et al. "Developmental toxicity of copaiba tree (Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae) oleoresin in rat." Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 May;49(5):1080-5.
    Lima, C., et al. "Pre-clinical validation of a vaginal cream containing copaiba oil (reproductive toxicology study)." Phytomedicine. 2011 Sep 15;18(12):1013-23.



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