Carqueja Powder - Baccharis genistelloides - Carqueja Powder - Baccharis genistelloides Carqueja Powder

Baccharis genistelloides

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Carqueja is one of the more widely known and used medicinal plants in Brazil and other parts of South America. It is as popular in Brazil as a natural herbal liver aid and digestive aid as milk thistle is in the United States and Europe.* Many of its traditional uses have been verified by research, and it appears in the official pharmacopeias of several South American countries as a specific liver and digestive aid.* For more information about carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides), please refer to the Database File for Carqueja in the Tropical Plant Database. More information can also be found in the new Antimicrobial Guide. To see pictures of carqueja, click here.

Traditional Uses:* for digestive disorders (ulcers, gastroenteritis, acid reflux, and ileocecal valve disorders) and to slow digestion; to tone, balance, and strengthen liver function (also to eliminate liver flukes, increase liver bile and to remove toxins from the liver); for gallbladder disorders (stones, pain, lack of bile, sluggish action, toxin build-up); as a detoxifier (blood, liver, gallbladder, pancreas); for viral infections (stomach viruses, HIV, herpes simplex)

Suggested Use: This plant is best prepared as an infusion (tea): Use one teaspoon of powder for each cup of water. Pour boiling water over herb in cup and allow to steep 10 minutes. Strain tea (or allow settled powder to remain in the bottom of cup) and drink warm. It is traditionally taken in 1/2 cup dosages, 2-3 times daily. For more complete instructions on preparing herbal infusions, see the Methods for Preparing Herbal Remedies Page.

Contraindications:
  • Not to be used during pregnancy as carqueja has demonstrated uterine stimulant and abortive effects in rats.
  • The use of this plant is contraindicated in persons with low blood pressure due to its documented hypotensive effects.
  • Carqueja has been documented to lower blood glucose levels in human and animal studies. As such, it is contraindicated in persons with hypoglycemia. Diabetics should monitor their blood sugar levels more closely if they use carqueja.
Drug Interactions: None reported, however, it may increase the effect of diabetic and antihypertensive drugs.

Other Practitioner Observations:
  • Carqueja has demonstrated antihepatotoxic (liver detoxifying) effects in animal studies. As such, it may speed the clearance of some drugs metabolized in the liver (decrease the half-life), thereby reducing the pharmacological effect (and/or side effects) of certain drugs required to be metabolized in the liver.




Third-Party Published Research*

All available third-party research on carqueja can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published research on carqueja is shown below:


Antacid & Anti-ulcer Actions:
Biondo, T., et al. "Antisecretory actions of Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC aqueous extract and isolated compounds: analysis of underlying mechanisms." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jun 22;136(2):368-73.
Gonzales, E., et al. “Gastric cytoprotection of Bolivian medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 70(3):329–33.
Gamberini, M. T., et al. “Açoes antiúlcera e antiácida do extracto aquoso e das fraçoes da Baccharis trimera.” Anais XII Simposio de Plantas Medicinais do Brasil. UFP: Curitiba, Paraná, 15–17 September 1992.
Sousa, B., et al., “Avaliaçao da atividade antiulcera do extrato bruto e fraçoes de Baccharis trimera.” Anais XII Simposio de Plantas Medicinais do Brasil. UFP: Curitiba, Paraná, 15–17 September 1992.
Gamberini, M. T., et al. “Inhibition of gastric secretion by a water extract from Baccharis triptera. Mart.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 1991; 86(Suppl. 2): 137-9.

Liver Protective & Detoxification Actions:
Soicke, H., et al. “Characterisation of flavonoids from Baccharis trimera and their antihepatotoxic properties.” Planta Med. 1987; 53(1): 37–9.

Anti-inflammatory, Muscle Relaxant, & Pain-Relieving Actions:
de Oliveira, C., et al. "Phenolic enriched extract of Baccharis trimera presents anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities." Molecules. 2012 Jan 23;17(1):1113-23.
Nogueira, N., et al."In vitro and in vivo toxicological evaluation of extract and fractions from Baccharis trimera with anti-inflammatory activity." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Nov 18;138(2):513-22.
Paul, E., et al. "Anti-inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Baccharis trimera Aqueous Extract on Induced Pleurisy in Rats and Lymphoproliferation In Vitro." Inflammation. 2009 Sep 15.
Abad, M. J., et al. “Anti-inflammatory activity of four Bolivian Baccharis species (Compositae).” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Feb; 103(3): 338-44.
Coelho, M. G., et al. “Anti-arthritic effect and subacute toxicological evaluation of Baccharis genistelloides aqueous extract.” Toxicol. Lett. 2004 1; 154(1-2): 69-80.
Hnatyszyn, O., et al. “Argentinian plant extracts with relaxant effect on the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum of guinea pig.” Phytomedicine. 2003 Nov; 10(8): 669-74.
Torres, L. M., et al. “Diterpene from Baccharis trimera with a relaxant effect on rat vascular smooth muscle.” Phytochemistry. 2000 Nov; 55(6): 617-9.
Gene, R. M., et al. “Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Baccharis trimera: Identification of its active constituents.” Planta. Med. 1996; 62(3): 232–5.
Gene, R. M., et al. “Anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extracts of three species of the genus Baccharis.” Planta Med. 1992 Dec; 58(6): 565-6.

Antmicrobial Actions:
Some of the more recent research on carqueja has focused on its antiviral properties. In a laboratory study published in 1999, researchers in Spain reported that a water extract of carqueja showed in vitro antiviral actions against Herpes simplex I and Vesicular stomatitis viruses at low dosages. Researchers in Texas had already reported in 1996 that a water extract of carqueja provided an in vitro inhibition of HIV virus replication in T-cells. In subsequent research, they've attributed this anti-HIV effect to a single chemical they found in the water extract of carqueja (3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) and reported that this plant chemical is a potent inhibitor of HIV at dosages as low as only 1 mcg/ml. In research published in 2006, Brazilian researchers reported that carqueja was active against Staphylococcus.
Samy, R., et al. "Therapeutic Potential of Plants as Anti-microbials for Drug Discovery." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010 September; 7(3): 283–294
Morales, G., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of three Baccharis species used in the traditional medicine of Northern Chile." Molecules. 2008; 13(4): 790-4.
Betoni, J., et al. "Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases." Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2006 Jun; 101(4): 387-90.
Sanchez Palomino, S., et al. “Screening of South American plants against human immunodeficiency virus: preliminary fractionation of aqueous extract from Baccharis trinervis.Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2002; 25(9):1147-50.
Abad, M. J., et al. “Antiviral activity of Bolivian plant extracts.” Gen. Pharmacol. 1999; 32(4): 499–503.
Abad, M. J., et al. “Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.” Phytother. Res. 1999 Mar; 13(2): 142-6.
Robinson, W. E., et al. “Inhibitors of HIV-1 replication that inhibit HIV Integrase.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1996; 93(13): 6326–31.
Abdel-Malek, S., et al. “Drug leads from the Kallawaya herbalists of Bolivia. 1. Background, rationale, protocol and anti-HIV activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 50(3): 157–66.

Anti-parasitic Actions:
de Oliveira, R., et al. "Schistosoma mansoni: in vitro schistosomicidal activity of essential oil of Baccharis trimera (less) DC." Exp Parasitol. 2012 Oct;132(2):135-43

Hypoglycemic & Antidiabetic Actions:
Trojan-Rodrigues, M, et al. "Plants used as antidiabetics in popular medicine in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Jan 6;139(1):155-63.
Khan, V., et al. "A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential." J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2012 Jan-Mar; 4(1): 27–42.
Dickel, M., et al. "Plants popularly used for loosing weight purposes in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan; 109(1): 60-71.
Oliveira, A. C., et al. “Effect of the extracts and fractions of Baccharis trimera and Syzygium cumini on glycaemia of diabetic and non-diabetic mice.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Dec; 102(3): 465-9.
Hossen, S., et al. “Evaluacion in vivo de la actividad hipoglucemiante de plantas medicinales de los valles altos y bajos de Cochabamba.” Ed. Universidad Mayor De San Simón Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímico-Farmacéuticas-Programa 2001; Cochabamba, Bolivia.
Alonso, P. E., et al. “Uso racional de las plantas medicinales.” Ed. Fin De Siglo Facultad de Química 1992; Montevideo, Uruguay.
Xavier, A. A., et al. “Effect of an extract of Baccharis genistelloides on the glucose level of the blood.” C. R. Seances Soc. Biol. Fil. 1967; 16(4): 972–4.

Antioxidant Actions:
de Oliveira, C., et al. "Phenolic enriched extract of Baccharis trimera presents anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities." Molecules. 2012 Jan 23;17(1):1113-23.
Pádua Bda, C., et al. "Antioxidant properties of Baccharis trimera in the neutrophils of Fisher rats." J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jun 16;129(3):381-6.
Rodrigues, C., et al. "Genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of Baccharis trimera in mice." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Aug; 125(1): 97-101.
Mendes, F., et al. "Evaluation of Baccharis trimera and Davilla rugosa in tests for adaptogen activity." Phytother Res. 2007; 21(6): 517-22.
Simoes-Pires, C. A., et al. “Isolation and on-line identification of antioxidant compounds from three Baccharis species by HPLC-UV-MS/MS with post-column derivatisation.” Phytochem. Anal. 2005 Sep-Oct; 16(5): 307-14.
Melo, S. F., et al. “Effect of the Cymbopogon citratus, Maytenus ilicifolia and Baccharis genistelloides extracts against the stannous chloride oxidative damage in Escherichia coli.” Mutat. Res. 2001 Sep; 496(1-2): 33-8.
Sharp, H., et al. “6-Oxygenated flavones from Baccharis trinervis (Asteraceae).” Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 2001; 29(1): 105-107.
de las Heras, B., et al. “Antiinflammatory and antioxidant activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Ecuador.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Jun; 61(2): 161-6.

Antivenin Actions:
Gupta, Y., et al. "Do Herbal Medicines Have Potential for Managing Snake Bite Envenomation?" Toxicol Int. 2012 May-Aug; 19(2): 89–99.
Januario, A. H., et al. “Neo-clerodane diterpenoid, a new metalloprotease snake venom inhibitor from Baccharis trimera (Asteraceae): anti-proteolytic and anti-hemorrhagic properties.” Chem. Biol. Interact. 2004 Dec 7; 150(3): 243-51.

Toxicity Studies
Nogueira, N., et al."In vitro and in vivo toxicological evaluation of extract and fractions from Baccharis trimera with anti-inflammatory activity." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Nov 18;138(2):513-22.
Rodrigues, C., et al. "Genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of Baccharis trimera in mice." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Aug; 125(1): 97-101.
Grance, S., et al. "Baccharis trimera: effect on hematological and biochemical parameters and hepatorenal evaluation in pregnant rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Apr; 117(1): 28-33.


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Last updated 12-31-2012