Bitter Melon Herb Powder - Momordica charantia Bitter Melon Powder

Momordica charantia

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search for products available from other suppliers or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

Over the years scientists have verified many of the traditional uses of bitter melon and it continues to be an important natural remedy in herbal medicine systems.* Natural health practitioners around the world are using it for diabetes, viruses, colds and flu, cancer and tumors, high cholesterol, and psoriasis.* For more information about bitter melon (Momordica charantia), please refer to the Database File for Bitter Melon in the Tropical Plant Database. To see photographs of bitter melon, click here.

Traditional Uses:* for cancer; for viral infections (HIV, herpes, Epstein Barr, hepatitis, influenza, and measles); for bacterial infections (Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Salmonella), as a bitter digestive aid (for dyspepsia and sluggish digestion); for diabetes

Suggested Use: This plant is best prepared as a decoction. Use one teaspoon of powder for each cup of water. Bring to a boil and gently boil in a covered pot for 20 minutes. Allow to cool and settle for 10 minutes and strain warm liquid into a cup (leaving the settled powder in the bottom of the pan). It is traditionally taken in one cup dosages, 2-3 times daily. For more complete instructions on preparing herbal decoctions, see the Methods for Preparing Herbal Remedies Page.

Contraindications:
  • Do not use if pregnant or breast feeding.
  • This plant has been documented in animal studies to reduce fertility in both males and females and should therefore not be used by those undergoing fertility treatment or seeking pregnancy.
  • Bitter melon has demonstrated in numerous in vivo studies that it lowers blood sugar levels. As such, it is contraindicated in persons with hypoglycemia. Diabetics should use with caution while monitoring their blood sugar levels regularly.
Drug Interactions: It may potentiate insulin and anti-diabetic drugs.





Third-Party Published Research*

All available third-party research on bitter melon be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the third-party published research on bitter melon is shown below:



Antimicrobial & Antiparasitic Actions:
Zhu, F., et al. "Alpha-momorcharin, a RIP produced by bitter melon, enhances defense response in tobacco plants against diverse plant viruses and shows antifungal activity in vitro." Planta. 2012 Sep 16.
Santos, K., et al. "Trypanocide, cytotoxic, and antifungal activities of Momordica charantia. Pharm Biol. 2012 Feb;50(2):162-6.
Feng, E., et al. "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a cornucopia of health: a review of its credited antidiabetic, anti-HIV, and antitumor properties." Curr Mol Med. 2011 Jul;11(5):417-36. Review.
Mahomoodally, M., et al. "Screening for alternative antibiotics: an investigation into the antimicrobial activities of medicinal food plants of Mauritius." J Food Sci. 2010 Apr;75(3):M173-7.
Gupta, S., et al. "Momordicatin purified from fruits of Momordica charantia is effective to act as a potent antileishmania agent." Parasitol Int. 2010 Jun;59(2):192-7.
Puri, M., et al. "Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) from Momordica charantia for anti viral therapy." Curr. Mol. Med. 2009 Dec; 9(9): 1080-94.
Coutinho, H., et al. "Effect of Momordica charantia L. in the resistance to aminoglycosides in methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus." Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2009 Sep 2.
Braca, A., et al. "Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Momordica charantia seed essential oil." Fitoterapia. 2008; 79(2): 123-5.
Fan, J., et al. "Inhibition on Hepatitis B virus in vitro of recombinant MAP30 from bitter melon." Mol. Biol. Rep. 2009; 36(2): 381-8.
Vashishta, A., et al. "In vitro refolded napin-like protein of Momordica charantia expressed in Escherichia coli displays properties of native napin." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2006; 1764(5): 847-55.
Das, P., et al. "Screening of antihelminthic effects of Indian plant extracts: a preliminary report." J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2006 Apr; 12(3): 299-301.
Schmourlo, G., et al. “Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan; 96(3): 563
Jiratchariyakul, W., et al. "HIV inhibitor from Thai bitter gourd." Planta Med. 2001 Jun; 67(4): 350-3.
Zheng, Y. T., et al. “Alpha-momorcharin inhibits HIV-1 replication in acutely but not chronically infected T-lymphocytes.” Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1999; 20(3): 239-43.
Frame, A. D., et al. “Plants from Puerto Rico with anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties.” P. R. Health Sci. J. 1998; 17(3): 243–52.
Khan, M. R., et al. “Momordica charantia and Allium sativum: Broad spectrum antibacterial activity.” Korean J. Pharmacog. 1998; 29(3): 155–58.
Bourinbaiar, A. S., et al. “The activity of plant-derived antiretroviral proteins MAP30 and GAP31 against Herpes simplex virus in vitro.” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1996; 219(3): 923–29.
Omoregbe, R. E., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants’ extracts on Escherichia coli,Salmonella paratyphi and Shigella dysenteriae.” Afr. J. Med. Med. Sci. 1996; 25(4): 373–75.
Lee-Huang, S., et al. “Inhibition of the integrase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 by anti-HIV plant proteins MAP30 and GAP31.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1995; 92(19): 8818–22.
Dong, T. X., et al. “Ribosome inactivating protein-like activity in seeds of diverse Cucurbitaceae plants.” Indian J. Exp. Biol. 1993; 25(3): 415–19.
Zhang, Q. C. “Preliminary report on the use of Momordica charantia extract by HIV patients.” J. Naturopath. Med. 1992; 3: 65–9.
Hussain, H. S. N., et al. “Plants in Kano ethomedicine: Screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids.” Int. J. Pharmacog. 1991; 29(1): 51–6.
Huang, T. M., et al. “Studies on antiviral activity of the extract of Momordica charantia and its active principle.” Virologica. 1990; 5(4): 367–73.
Lee-Huang, S. “MAP 30: A new inhibitor of HIV-1 infection and replication.” FEBS Lett. 1990; 272(1–2): 12–18.
Takemoto, D. J. “Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor with anti-viral activity from the bitter melon.” Prep. Biochem. 1983; 13(4): 371–93.
Takemoto, D. J., et al. “Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor from the bitter melon Momordica charantia.Prep. Biochem. 1982; 12(4): 355-75.

Anticancerous & Cytotoxic Actions:
Li, C., et al. "Momordica charantia Extract Induces Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells through Caspase- and Mitochondria-Dependent Pathways." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:261971.
Chipps, E., et al. "Cytotoxicity analysis of active components in bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seed extracts using human embryonic kidney and colon tumor cells." Nat Prod Commun. 2012 Sep;7(9):1203-8.
Tabata, K., et al. "Kuguaglycoside C, a constituent of Momordica charantia, induces caspase-independent cell death of neuroblastoma cells." Cancer Sci. 2012 Dec;103(12):2153-8.
Meng, Y., et al. "Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of ?-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol." Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:3133-42.
Soundararajan, R., et al. "Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:732404.
Fang, E., et al. "The MAP30 protein from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) seeds promotes apoptosis in liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo." Cancer Lett. 2012 Nov 1;324(1):66-74.
Fang, E., et al. "In vitro and in vivo anticarcinogenic effects of RNase MC2, a ribonuclease isolated from dietary bitter gourd, toward human liver cancer cells." Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012 Aug;44(8):1351-60.
Wang, X., et al. "Structures of new triterpenoids and cytotoxicity activities of the isolated major compounds from the fruit of Momordica charantia L." J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Apr 18;60(15):3927-33.
Zhang, J., et al. "Cucurbitane triterpenoids from the leaves of Momordica charantia, and their cancer chemopreventive effects and cytotoxicities." Chem Biodivers. 2012 Feb;9(2):428-40.
Pitchakarn, P, et al. "Kuguacin J, a triterpeniod from Momordica charantia leaf, modulates the progression of androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line, PC3." Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Mar;50(3-4):840-7.
Brennan, V., et al. "Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) extract suppresses adrenocortical cancer cell proliferation through modulation of the apoptotic pathway, steroidogenesis, and insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor/RAC-? serine/threonine-protein kinase signaling." J Med Food. 2012 Apr;15(4):325-34.
Fang, E., et al. "RNase MC2: a new Momordica charantia ribonuclease that induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells associated with activation of MAPKs and induction of caspase pathways." Apoptosis. 2012 Apr;17(4):377-87.
Guan, L. "Synthesis and anti-tumour activities of sulphated polysaccharide obtained from Momordica charantia." Nat Prod Res. 2012;26(14):1303-9
Fang, E., et al. "Momordica Charantia lectin, a type II ribosome inactivating protein, exhibits antitumor activity toward human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo." Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012 Jan;5(1):109-21.
Pitchakarn, P., et al. "Kuguacin J isolated from Momordica charantia leaves inhibits P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)-mediated multidrug resistance." J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Jan;23(1):76-84.
Ru, P., et al. "Bitter melon extract impairs prostate cancer cell-cycle progression and delays prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in TRAMP model." Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Dec;4(12):2122-30.
Kupradinun, P., et al. "Anticlastogenic and anticarcinogenic potential of Thai bitter gourd fruits." Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(5):1299-305.
Feng, E., et al. "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a cornucopia of health: a review of its credited antidiabetic, anti-HIV, and antitumor properties." Curr Mol Med. 2011 Jul;11(5):417-36. Review.
Pitchakarn, P., et al. "Induction of G1 arrest and apoptosis in androgen-dependent human prostate cancer by Kuguacin J, a triterpenoid from Momordica charantia leaf." Cancer Lett. 2011 Jul 28;306(2):142-50.
Kai, H., et al. "Inhibition of proliferation by agricultural plant extracts in seven human adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL)-related cell lines." J Nat Med. 2011 Jul;65(3-4):651-5.
Agrawal, R., et al. "Chemopreventive and anticarcinogenic effects of Momordica charantia extract." Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11(2):371-5.
Pitchakarn, P., et al. "Momordica charantia leaf extract suppresses rat prostate cancer progression in vitro and in vivo." Cancer Sci. 2010 Oct;101(10):2234-40.
Okada, Y., et al. "Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes." Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2010 Sep;65(3):225-32.
Ray, R., et al. "Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) extract inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation by modulating cell cycle regulatory genes and promotes apoptosis." Cancer Res. 2010 Mar 1;70(5):1925-31.
Rossmann, M., et al. "Eleostearic Acid inhibits breast cancer proliferation by means of an oxidation-dependent mechanism." Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila Pa). 2009; 2(10): 879-86.
Li, M., "Anti-tumor activity and immunological modification of ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) from Momordica charantia by covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol." Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai). 2009; 41(9): 792-9.
Xiong, S., et al. "Ribosome-inactivating proteins isolated from dietary bitter melon induce apoptosis and inhibit histone deacetylase-1 selectively in premalignant and malignant prostate cancer cells." Int. J. Cancer. 2009 Aug 15; 125(4): 774-82.
Kobori, M., et al. "Alpha-eleostearic acid and its dihydroxy derivative are major apoptosis-inducing components of bitter gourd." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008 Nov; 56(22): 10515-20.
Fan, J., et al. "Effects of recombinant MAP30 on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human colorectal carcinoma LoVo cells." Mol. Biotechnol. 2008 May; 39(1): 79-86.
Akihisa, T., et al. "Cucurbitane-type triterpenoids from the fruits of Momordica charantia and their cancer chemopreventive effects." J. Nat. Prod. 2007; 70(8):1233-9.
Khan, S., et al. "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia): a potential mechanism in anti-carcinogenesis of colon." World J. Gastroenterol. 2007 Mar; 13(11): 1761-2.
Hwang, Y., et al. "Momordin I, an inhibitor of AP-1, suppressed osteoclastogenesis through inhibition of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and also reduced osteoclast activity and survival." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005 Nov; 337(3): 815-23.
Yasui, Y., et al. “Bitter gourd seed fatty acid rich in 9c,11t,13t-conjugated linolenic acid induces apoptosis and up-regulates the GADD45, p53 and PPARgamma in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells.” Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 2005 Aug; 73(2): 113-9.
Ike, K., et al. “Induction of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and T helper 1 (Th1) immune response by bitter gourd extract.” J. Vet. Med. Sci. 2005; 67(5): 521-4.
Nagasawa, H., et al. “Effects of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) or ginger rhizome (Zingiber offifinale Rosc.) on spontaneous mammary tumorigenesis in SHN mice.” Am. J. Clin. Med. 2002; 30(2–3): 195–205.
Kim, J. H., et al. “Induction of apoptosis by momordin I in promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells.” Anticancer Res. 2002 May-Jun; 22(3): 1885-9.
Tazzari, P. L., et al. “An Epstein-Barr virus-infected lymphoblastoid cell line (D430B) that grows in SCID-mice with the morphologic features of a CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and is sensitive to anti-CD30 immunotoxins.” Haematologica. 1999; 84(11): 988-95.
Lee, D. K., et al. “Momordins inhibit both AP-1 function and cell proliferation.” Anticancer Res. 1998 Jan-Feb; 18(1A): 119-24.
Terenzi, A., et al. “Anti-CD30 (BER=H2) immunotoxins containing the type-1 ribosome-inactivating proteins momordin and PAP-S (pokeweed antiviral protein from seeds) display powerful antitumor activity against CD30+ tumor cells in vitro and in SCID mice.” Br. J. Haematol. 1996; 92(4): 872–79.
Bolognesi, A., et al. “Induction of apoptosis by ribosome-inactivating proteins and related immunotoxins.” Int. J. Cancer. 1996 Nov; 68(3): 349-55.
Battelli, M. G., et al. “Toxicity of ribosome-inactivating proteins-containing immunotoxins to a human bladder carcinoma cell line.” Int. J. Cancer. 1996 Feb; 65(4): 485-90.
Lee-Huang, S., et al. “Anti-HIV and anti-tumor activities of recombinant MAP30 from bitter melon.” Gene. 1995; 161(2):151–56.
Cunnick, J. E., et al. “Induction of tumor cytotoxic immune cells using a protein from the bitter melon (Momordica charantia).” Cell Immunol. 1990 Apr; 126(2): 278-89.
Zhu, Z. J., et al. “Studies on the active constituents of Momordica charantia l.” Yao. Hsueh. Hsueh. Pao. 1990; 25(12): 898–903.
Stirpe, F., et al. “Selective cytotoxic activity of immunotoxins composed of a monoclonal anti-Thy 1.1 antibody and the ribosome-inactivating proteins bryodin and momordin.” Br. J. Cancer. 1988 Nov; 58(5): 558-61.
Takemoto, D. J., et al. “Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor with anti-viral activity from the bitter melon. Part 2.” Prep Biochem. 1983; 13(5): 397-421.
Takemoto, D. J., et al. “The cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of the bitter melon (Momordica charantia) on human lymphocytes.” Toxicon. 1982; 20: 593–99.
Takemoto, D. J., et al. “Guanylate cyclase activity in human leukemic and normal lymphocytes. Enzyme inhibition and cytotoxicity of plant extracts.” Enzyme. 1982; 27(3): 179–88.
Takemoto, D. J., et al. “Partial purification and characterization of a guanylate cyclase inhibitor with cytotoxic properties from the bitter melon (Momordica charantia).” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1980; 94(1): 332–39.
Claflin, A. J., et al. “Inhibition of growth and guanylate cyclase activity of an undifferentiated prostate adenocarcinoma by an extract of the balsam pear (Momordica charantia abbreviata).” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1978; 75(2): 989–93.
Vesely, D. L., et al. “Isolation of a guanylate cyclase inhibitor from the balsam pear (Momordica charantia abbreviata).” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1977; 77(4): 1294–99.

Antidiabetic & Anti-obesity Actions:
Ooi, C., et al. "Momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Aug 15; 8:CD007845. Review.
Ahmad, Z., et al. "In vitro anti-diabetic activities and chemical analysis of polypeptide-k and oil isolated from seeds of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)." Molecules. 2012 Aug 10;17(8):9631-40.
Mahomoodally, M., et al. "Traditional medicinal herbs and food plants have the potential to inhibit key carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in vitro and reduce postprandial blood glucose peaks in vivo." Scientific World Journal. 2012;2012:285284.
Deng, R. "A review of the hypoglycemic effects of five commonly used herbal food supplements." Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric. 2012 Apr 1;4(1):50-60. Review.
Tsai, C., et al. "Wild bitter gourd improves metabolic syndrome: a preliminary dietary supplementation trial." Nutr J. 2012 Jan 13;11:4.
Chaturvedi, P. "Antidiabetic potentials of Momordica charantia: multiple mechanisms behind the effects." J Med Food. 2012 Feb;15(2):101-7
Saha, S., et al. "Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of conjugated linolenic acid isomers against streptozotocin-induced diabetes." Br J Nutr. 2012 Sep 28;108(6):974-83
Keller, A., et al. "Saponins from the traditional medicinal plant Momordica charantia stimulate insulin secretion in vitro." Phytomedicine. 2011 Dec 15;19(1):32-7.
Akhtar, N., et al. "Pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical evaluation of extracts from different plant parts of indigenous origin for their hypoglycemic responses in rabbits." Acta Pol Pharm. 2011 Nov-Dec;68(6):919-25.
Blum, A., et al. "Momordica charantia extract, a herbal remedy for type 2 diabetes, contains a specific 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor." J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2012 Jan;128(1-2):51-5.
Singh, J., et al. "Medicinal chemistry of the anti-diabetic effects of momordica charantia: active constituents and modes of actions." Open Med Chem J. 2011;5(Suppl 2):70-7.
Popovich, D., et al. "Momordica charantia seed extract reduces pre-adipocyte viability, affects lactate dehydrogenase release, and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells." J Med Food. 2011 Mar;14(3):201-8.
Feng, E., et al. "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a cornucopia of health: a review of its credited antidiabetic, anti-HIV, and antitumor properties." Curr Mol Med. 2011 Jul;11(5):417-36. Review.
Hafizur, R., et al. "Modulation of pancreatic B-cells in neonatally streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats by the ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia fruit pulp." Nat Prod Res. 2011 Feb;25(4):353-67.
Wang, Z., et al. "Bioactives from bitter melon enhance insulin signaling and modulate acyl carnitine content in skeletal muscle in high-fat diet-fed mice." J Nutr Biochem. 2011 Nov;22(11):1064-73.
Fuangchan, A., et al. "Hypoglycemic effect of bitter melon compared with metformin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Mar 24;134(2):422-8.
Xie, W., et al. "Diabetes is an inflammatory disease: evidence from traditional Chinese medicines." Diabetes Obes Metab. 2011 Apr;13(4):289-301.
Bhujbal, S., et al. "A novel herbal formulation in the management of diabetes. Int J Pharm Investig. 2011 Oct;1(4):222-6.
Abdollahi, M., et al. "Effects of Momordica charantia on pancreatic histopathological changes associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in neonatal rats." Histol Histopathol. 2011 Jan;26(1):13-21.
Gadang, V., et al. "Dietary bitter melon seed increases peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? gene expression in adipose tissue, down-regulates the nuclear factor-?B expression, and alleviates the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome." J Med Food. 2011 Jan-Feb;14(1-2):86-93.
Malik, Z., et al. "Neuroprotective effect of Momordica charantia in global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion induced neuronal damage in diabetic mice." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jan 27;133(2):729-34.
Tripathi, U., et al. "Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative effect of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia pulp and Trigonella foenum graecum seed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats." Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2010 Aug;47(4):227-33.
Teoh, S., et al. "Histological changes in the kidneys of experimental diabetic rats fed with Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) extract." Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2010;51(1):91-5.
Babish, J., et al. "Antidiabetic screening of commercial botanical products in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and db/db mice." J Med Food. 2010 Jun;13(3):535-47.
Xia, X., et al. "Targeting metabolic syndrome: candidate natural agents." J Diabetes. 2010 Dec;2(4):243-9.
Klomann, S., et al. "Antidiabetic effects of bitter gourd extracts in insulin-resistant db/db mice." Br J Nutr. 2010 Dec;104(11):1613-20.
Chaturvedi, P., et al. "Momordica charantia maintains normal glucose levels and lipid profiles and prevents oxidative stress in diabetic rats subjected to chronic sucrose load." J Med Food. 2010 Jun;13(3):520-7.
Nerurkar, P., et al. "Momordica charantia (bitter melon) inhibits primary human adipocyte differentiation by modulating adipogenic genes." BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 Jun 29;10:34.
Leung, L. , et al. "Anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon): a mini review." Br. J. Nutr. 2009; 102(12): 1703-8.
Tripathi, U., et al. "The plant extracts of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum-graecum have anti-oxidant and anti-hyperglycemic properties for cardiac tissue during diabetes mellitus." Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2009 Nov-Dec;2(5):290-6.
Yadav, M., et al. "Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats." Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010 Apr;160(8):2388-400.
Teoh, S., et al. "A histological study of the structural changes in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with or without Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)." Clin Ter. 2009 Jul-Aug; 160(4): 283-6.
Nahas, R., et al. "Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes." Can. Fam. Physician. 2009; 55(6): 591-6.
Shih, C., et al. "Momordica charantia extract on insulin resistance and the skeletal muscle GLUT4 protein in fructose-fed rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 May 4; 123(1) :82-90.
Inayat-ur-Rahman, m., et al. "Serum sialic acid changes in non-insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients following bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and rosiglitazone (Avandia) treatment." Phytomedicine. 2009 May; 16(5): 401-5.
Nivitabishekam, S., et al. "Pharmacodynamic interaction of Momordica charantia with rosiglitazone in rats." Chem. Biol. Interact. 2009 Feb; 177(3): 247-53.
Han, C."Hypoglycaemic activity of saponin fraction extracted from Momordica charantia in PEG/salt aqueous two-phase systems." Nat. Prod. Res. 2008; 22(13): 1112-9.
Cheng, H., et al. "A cell-based screening identifies compounds from the stem of Momordica charantia that overcome insulin resistance and activate AMP-activated protein kinase." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008 Aug; 56(16): 6835-43.
Shih, C., et al. "Effects of Momordica charantia on insulin resistance and visceral obesity in mice on high-fat diet." Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2008 Aug; 81(2): 134-43.
Tan, M., et al. "Antidiabetic activities of triterpenoids isolated from bitter melon associated with activation of the AMPK pathway." Chem. Biol. 2008; 15(3): 263-73.
Singh, N., et al. "Regeneration of beta cells in islets of Langerhans of pancreas of alloxan diabetic rats by acetone extract of Momordica charantia (Linn.) (bitter gourd) fruits." Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2007; 45(12): 1055-62.
Uebanso, T., et al. "Extracts of Momordica charantia suppress postprandial hyperglycemia in rats." J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo). 2007 Dec; 53(6): 482-8.
Kumar, G., et al. "Modulatory effect of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia LINN.) on alterations in kidney heparan sulfate in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jan 17; 115(2): 276-83.
Sridhar, M., et al. "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) improves insulin sensitivity by increasing skeletal muscle insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in high-fat-fed rats." Br. J. Nutr. 2008; 99(4): 806-12.
Fernandes, N., et al. "An experimental evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2007 Sep 24; 7:29.
Huang, H., et al. "Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) inhibits adipocyte hypertrophy and down regulates lipogenic gene expression in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese rats." Br. J. Nutr. 2008; 99(2): 230-9.
Dans, A., et al. "The effect of Momordica charantia capsule preparation on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus needs further studies." J. Clin. Epidemiol. 2007; 60(6): 554-9.
Xiang, L., et al. "The reparative effects of Momordica Charantia Linn. extract on HIT-T15 pancreatic beta-cells." Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 2007; 16 Suppl 1: 249-52.
Roffey, B. et al. "Water extracts from Momordica charantia increase glucose uptake and adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipose cells." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May; 112(1): 77-84.
Oishi, Y., et al. "Inhibition of increases in blood glucose and serum neutral fat by Momordica charantia saponin fraction." Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2007; 71(3): 735-40
Omar, S., et al. "Hypoglycemic effect of the seeds of Momordica charantia." Fitoterapia. 2007; 78(1): 46-7.
Ojewole, J., et al. "Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) whole-plant aqueous extract in rats." Cardiovasc. J. S. Afr. 2006 Sep-Oct; 17(5): 227-32.
Mahomoodally, M., et al. "Effect of exogenous ATP on Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) induced inhibition of d-glucose, l-tyrosine and fluid transport across rat everted intestinal sacs in vitro." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Mar; 110(2): 257-63.
Lans, C. "Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus." J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomedicine. 2006 Oct 13; 2:45.
Chuang, C., et al. "Fractionation and identification of 9c, 11t, 13t-conjugated linolenic acid as an activator of PPARalpha in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)." J. Biomed. Sci. 2006 Nov; 13(6): 763-72.
Krawinkel, M., et al. "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia): A dietary approach to hyperglycemia." Nutr. Rev. 2006; 64(7 Pt 1): 331-7.
Harinantenaina, L., et al. "Momordica charantia constituents and antidiabetic screening of the isolated major compounds." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 54(7): 1017-21.
Abd El Sattar, E., et al. "Some toxicological studies of Momordica charantia L. on albino rats in normal and alloxan diabetic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Nov; 108(2): 236-42.
Yibchok-Anun. S., et al. "Slow acting protein extract from fruit pulp of Momordica charantia with insulin secretagogue and insulinomimetic activities." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006 Jun;29(6):1126-31.
Jung, M., et al. "Antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants." Curr. Med. Chem. 2006; 13(10): 1203-18.
Kumar, G., et al. "Effect of bitter gourd and spent turmeric on constituents of glycosaminoglycans in different tissues in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats." Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2006 Jun; 286(1-2) :53-8.
Reyes, B., et al. "Anti-diabetic potentials of Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata and their effects on estrous cyclicity of alloxan-induced diabetic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 105(1-2): 196-200.
Khan, B., et al. "Hypogylcemic activity of aqueous extract of some indigenous plants." Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 2005; 18(1): 62-4.
Zheng, Z.X., et al. “The hypoglycemic effects of crude polysaccharides extract from Momordica charantia in mice.” Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2005 May; 34(3): 361-3.
Reyes, B. A., et al. “Anti-diabetic potentials of Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata and their effects on estrous cyclicity of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Nov 16;
Sathishsekar, D., et al. “Beneficial effects of Momordica charantia seeds in the treatment of STZ-induced diabetes in experimental rats.” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2005; 28(6): 978-83.
Shetty, A. K., et al. “Effect of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) on glycaemic status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.” Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 2005 Sep; 60(3): 109-12.
Kumar Shetty, A., et al. “Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) modulates activities of intestinal and renal disaccharidases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.” Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2005; 49(8): 791-6.
Chaturvedi, P., et al. “Effect of Momordica charantia on lipid profile and oral glucose tolerance in diabetic rats.” Phytother. Res. 2004; 18(11): 954-6.
Vikrant, V., et al. “Treatment with extracts of Momordica charantia and Eugenia jambolana prevents hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in fructose fed rats.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 76(2): 139–43.
Miura, T., et al. “Hypoglycemic activity of the fruit of the Momordica charantia in type 2 diabetic mice.” J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 2001; 47(5): 340–44.
Raza, H., et al. “Modulation of xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress in chronic streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed with Momordica charantia fruit extract.” J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. 2000; 14(3): 131–39.
Ahmad, N., et al. “Effect of Momordica charantia (Karolla) extracts on fasting and postprandial serum glucose levels in NIDDM patients.” Bangladesh Med. Res. Counc. Bull. 1999; 25(1): 11–13.
Ahmed, I., et al. “Effects of Momordica charantia fruit juice on islet morphology in the pancreas of the streptozotocin-diabetic rat.” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 1998; 40(3): 145–51.
Sarkar, S., et al. “Demonstration of the hypoglycemic action of Momordica charantia in a validated animal model of diabetes.” Pharmacol. Res. 1996; 33(1): 1–4.
Ali, L., et al. “Studies on hypoglycemic effects of fruit pulp, seed and whole plant of Momordica charantia on normal and diabetic model rats.” Planta Med. 1993; 59(5): 408–12.
Akhtar, M. S. “Trial of Momordica charantia Linn (Karela) powder in patients with maturity-onset diabetes.” J. Pak. Med. Assoc. 1982; 32(4): 106–7.

Cholesterol-Lowering, Liver Protecting, & Antioxidant Actions:
Senanayake, G., et al. "Mechanisms underlying decreased hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol by dietary bitter melon extract in the rat." Lipids. 2012 May;47(5):495-503.
Saha, S., et al. "Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of conjugated linolenic acid isomers against streptozotocin-induced diabetes." Br J Nutr. 2012 Sep 28;108(6):974-83
Saha, S., et al. "Comparative study of hypocholesterolemic and hypolipidemic effects of conjugated linolenic acid isomers against induced biochemical perturbations and aberration in erythrocyte membrane fluidity." Eur J Nutr. 2012 Jun;51(4):483-95.
Ching, R. "Supplementation of bitter melon to rats fed a high-fructose diet during gestation and lactation ameliorates fructose-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic oxidative stress in male offspring." J Nutr. 2011 Sep;141(9):1664-72.
Sato, M., et al. "Dietary kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) flesh inhibits triacylglycerol absorption and lowers the risk for development of fatty liver in rats." Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2011 Oct 1;236(10):1139-46.
Lin, K., et al. "Antioxidant constituents from the stems and fruits of Momordica charantia. Food Chem. 2011 Jul 15;127(2):609-14. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.01.051.
Nerurkar, P., et al. "Momordica charantia (bitter melon) attenuates high-fat diet-associated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation." J Neuroinflammation. 2011 Jun 3;8:64.
Popovich, D., et al. "Momordica charantia seed extract reduces pre-adipocyte viability, affects lactate dehydrogenase release, and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells." J Med Food. 2011 Mar;14(3):201-8.
Kavitha, N., et al. "Influence of Momordica charantia on oxidative stress-induced perturbations in brain monoamines and plasma corticosterone in albino rats." Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 Jul;43(4):424-8.
Chen, C., et al. "Cucurbitane triterpenoids from Momordica charantia and their cytoprotective activity in tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity of HepG2 cells." Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010 Dec;58(12):1639-42.
Chaturvedi, P., et al. "Momordica charantia maintains normal glucose levels and lipid profiles and prevents oxidative stress in diabetic rats subjected to chronic sucrose load." J Med Food. 2010 Jun;13(3):520-7.
Chang, C., et al. "Octanorcucurbitane triterpenoids protect against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity from the stems of Momordica charantia." Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010 Feb;58(2):225-9.
Yama, O., et al. "Effect of methanolic seed extract of Momordica charantia on body weight and serum cholesterol level of male Sprague-Dawley rats." Nig Q J Hosp Med. 2010 Oct-Dec;20(4):209-13.
Chaturvedi, P. "Bitter melon protects against lipid peroxidation caused by immobilization stress in albino rats." Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 2009; 79(1): 48-56.
Nerurkar, P., et al. "Lipid lowering effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) in HIV-1-protease inhibitor-treated human hepatoma cells, HepG2." Br. J. Pharmacol. 2006 Aug; 148(8): 1156-64.
Chan, L. L., et al. “Reduced adiposity in bitter melon (Momordica charantia)-fed rats is associated with increased lipid oxidative enzyme activities and uncoupling protein expression.” J. Nutr. 2005; 135(11): 2517-23.
Chen, Q., et al. “Reduced adiposity in bitter melon (Momordica charantia) fed rats is associated with lower tissue triglyceride and higher plasma catecholamines.” Br. J. Nutr. 2005; 93(5): 747-54.
Hsieh, C. L., et al. “Inhibitory effect of some selected nutraceutic herbs on LDL glycation induced by glucose and glyoxal.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Dec; 102(3): 357-63.
Chaturvedi, P. “Role of Momordica charantia in maintaining the normal levels of lipids and glucose in diabetic rats fed a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet.” Br. J. Biomed. Sci. 2005; 62(3): 124-6.
Sathishsekar, D., et al. “Antioxidant properties of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.” Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 2005; 14(2): 153-8.
Ansari, N. M., et al. “Antioxidant activity of five vegetables traditionally consumed by South-Asian migrants in Bradford, Yorkshire, UK.” Phytother. Res. 2005; 19(10): 907-11.
Senanayake, G.V. et al. “The effects of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) extracts on serum and liver lipid parameters in hamsters fed cholesterol-free and cholesterol-enriched diets.” J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 2004 Aug; 50(4): 253-7.
Ahmed, I., et al. “Hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of anti-diabetic Momordica charantia (Karela) fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2001; 51(3):155–61.
Jayasooriya, A. P., et al. “Effects of Momordica charantia powder on serum glucose levels and various lipid parameters in rats fed with cholesterol-free and cholesterol-enriched diets.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 72 (1–2): 331.

Anti-ulcer Actions:
Alam, S., et al. "Antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of Momordica charantia L. in rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jun 25; 123(3): 464-9.
Dengiz, G. O., et al. “Effects of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) on indomethacin-induced ulcer model in rats.” Turk. J. Gastroenterol. 2005 Jun; 16(2): 85-88.
Yesilada, E., et al. “Screening of Turkish anti-ulcerogenic folk remedies for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 66(3): 289–93.

Wound-Healing Actions:
Pis, A., et al. "The beneficial effects of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on wound healing of rabbit skin." J Dermatolog Treat. 2012 Sep 21.

Pain-relieving & Fever-reducing Actions:
Patel, R., et al. "Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia Linn. fruits." J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2010 Oct;1(4):415-8.

Anti-inflammatory Actions:
Hsu, C., et al. "Wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) extract and its bioactive components suppress Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation." Food Chem. 2012 Dec 1;135(3):976-84.
Cheng, H., et al. "EMCD, a hypoglycemic triterpene isolated from Momordica charantia wild variant, attenuates TNF-?-induced inflammation in FL83B cells in an AMP-activated protein kinase-independent manner." Eur J Pharmacol. 2012 Aug 15;689(1-3):241-8.
Saha, S., et al. "Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of conjugated linolenic acid isomers against streptozotocin-induced diabetes." Br J Nutr. 2012 Sep 28;108(6):974-83.
Nerurkar, P., et al. "Momordica charantia (bitter melon) attenuates high-fat diet-associated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation." J Neuroinflammation. 2011 Jun 3;8:64.

Neuroprotective Actions:
Malik, Z., et al. "Neuroprotective effect of Momordica charantia in global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion induced neuronal damage in diabetic mice." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jan 27;133(2):729-34.

Male Anti-fertility Actions:
Boetse, Y., et al. "Histomorphological Alterations in the Prostate Gland and Epithelium of Seminiferous Tubule of Sprague-Dawley Rats Treated with Methanolic Extract of Momordica charantia Seeds." Iran J Med Sci. 2011 Dec;36(4):266-72.
Odewusi, A., et al. "Effects of the leaf decoction of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) on Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability Transition Pore (MMPTP) and fertility in normal male albino rats." Afr J Med Med Sci. 2010 Dec;39 Suppl:47-59.
Girini, M. M., et al. “Effect of graded doses of Momordica charantia seed extract on rat sperm: scanning electron microscope study.” J. Basic Clin. Physiol. Pharmacol. 2005; 16(1): 53-66.
Bhakuni, D. S., et al. “Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part XIII.” Indian J. Exp. Biol. 1988; 26(11): 883RY–904
Koentjoro-Soehadi, T., et al. “Perspectives of male contraception with regards to Indonesian traditional drugs.” Proc. Second National Congress of Indonesian Society of Andrology. 1982; Aug. 2–6: 12.
Dixit, V. P., et al. “Effects of Momordica charantia fruit extract on the testicular function of dog.” Planta Med. 1978; 34: 280–86.
Prakash, A. O., et al. “Screening of Indian plants for antifertility activity.” Indian J. Exp. Biol. 1976; 14: 623–626.
Stepka, W., et al. “Antifertility investigation on Momordica.” Lloydia. 1974; 37(4): 645c
Jamwal, K. S., et al. “Preliminary screening of some reputed abortifacient indigenous plants.” Indian J. Pharmacy 1962; 24: 218–20


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