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Taxon: Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl) R. M. King & H. Rob.
Synonyms: Eupatorium ayapana, Eupatorium triplinerve
Common names: aypana, aiapana, aiapaina, aipana, cagueña, curia, daun panahan, daun perasman, diapalma iapana, diarana-guaco, japana, japana-branca, sekrepatoe wiwir, pool root, white snakeroot, yapana
Parts Used: Leaves, flowers, whole plant
| AYAPANA |
| HERBAL PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS |
||Infusion: 1 cup twice daily
Ayapana is an ornamental erect perennial herb with aromatic leaves that grows 20 to 30 cm high. The 5-8 cm long leaves are smooth, opposite and lanceolate The many flowering heads are each 6 to 13 millimeters long and bear about twenty pink flowers, which are 6 to 7 millimeters long. Ayapana is native to South America and can be found in the Amazon region of Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, and the three Guyanas. It has been introduced into the U.S. and can be found in Puerto Rico and Hawaii and it has naturalized in other tropical countries as well. Ayapana has three different Latin names (Ayapana triplinervis, Eupatorium ayapana, and E. triplinerve) but all three names refer to the same plant.
Ayapana is in the large Asteraceae plant family (which is also called the sunflower or daisy
family). The Asteraceae is the second largest family in its Division with some 1,100 genera and over 20,000 recognized species. Two common and well known North American medicinal plant
species in the family are boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum) and Joe-Pye-weed (Eupatorium purpureum).
TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES
The Shipibo-Conibo Indians of Peru take the leaf and stem of the plant internally for colic, stomach pain, edema, and as a depurative. They prepare a paste of the leaves to use externally on wounds and hemorrhages. For internal hemorrhages, snake bite and vomiting they juice the leaves and drink it internally. In Peruvian herbal medicine the plant is believed to be sudorific, cicatrizant, astringent, stomachic, stimulant, febrifuge, antidiarrhetic, and anti-tumorous. The leaves are prepared in infusions, decoctions, baths and plasters to protect the liver, for inflammation of the urinary tract, and for tetanus. An infusion of the leaf and stem is used as a digestive stimulant. Ayapana is thought to be antineoplastic and used for cancerous tumors in both Peru and Argentina. An infusion of the entire plant is also used in Argentina to stimulate menstruation.
In Brazilian herbal medicine the leaf juice and an infusion of the leaves and stems are considered tonic, stimulant, astringent, antidysenteric and sudorific. An infusion of the leaves is mixed with honey and used for coughs and sore throats. A leaf infusion is also used for queasy stomachs, indigestion, diarrhea, fever, headaches, insomnia, nausea and vomiting, and stomach ulcers. The leaf juice is used externally as an astringent and emollient and is rich in vitamin C. The leaf juice is swished in the mouth for gingivitis and mouth ulcers. The leaf juice is also highly reputed against snakebite in the Brazilian Amazon and it's considered a good sedative when taken internally and recommended externally for simple wounds and stubborn ulcers. Ayapana is also used for angina, gastric ulcers, cholera, eye and ear problems in Brazil.
In the Amazon region of the Guyanas (Surinam, Guyana, and French Guiana) ayapana is considered a febrifuge (reduces fever), alexiteric (anti-infective), sudorific (causes sweating), digestive, and laxative. A leaf infusion is employed for headaches, colds and flu, mouth sores and ulcers, and hypertension. The whole plant is decocted to relieve nausea and vomiting caused from malaria by the Palikur of French Guiana and this same decoction is used in Surinam for chronic diarrhea.
Ayapana can be found outside the Amazon where it is also used in other herbal medicine systems. In India a leaf infusion is considered a cardiotonic, diaphoretic, emetic, hemostat, laxative, stimulant, and tonic. In Trinidad, the plant is used for chest colds, constipation, fevers, flu, pneumonia, and yellow fever. In Malaya it is considered sudorific and used for bronchitis and diarrhea.
Ayapana was first written about in the United States in the1887 American Journal of Pharmacy which noted: "The leaves are recommended against indigestion, pectoral complaints and in cholera, and were used for similar purposes in Europe in the early part of the present century." Ayapana leaves are official in the French Pharmacopoeia.
Ayapana is a rich source of naturally occurring coumarin chemicals. Coumarins are chemical
compounds found in many plants and which usually have a sweet scent—much like
newly-mown hay. Coumarin has clinical value as the precursor for several anticoagulant drugs;
most notably, one widely prescribed drug called warfarin. Two of ayapana’s coumarin chemicals are called ayapanin and ayapin which were first discovered in the late 1930's. These chemicals were reported to have pronounced blood-thinning or anticoagulant actions in four early studies.
Ayapana also contains a coumarin named hernarin (7-methoxycoumarin) which may help explain why the plant is used in herbal medicine as an anti-tumor remedy. Recent research in 2005 reported that this chemical was toxic to cancer cells—including multi-drug resistant cancer cells and leukemic cells.
Plant chemicals documented in ayapana include: 1-8 cineol, alpha-phellandrene, alpha-terineol,
ayapanin, ayapin, beta-selinene, borneol, bornyl-acetate, coumarin, daphnetin, dipentene,
herniarin, hydrangetin, linalol, methylene-dioxy-6,7-coumarin, sabinene, stigmasterol,
thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, and umbelliferone.
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH
In a laboratory study in 1998, a methanol extract of the dried leaves of ayapana did not evidence any antibacterial activity but did show a weak antifungal activity by researchers in Mauritius. Other researchers in India working with a pet ether extract of the leaves also reported marginal or no results against various strains of bacteria and fungi. An ethanol extract of the entire plant (harvested in Surinam) was reported to be active against Bacillus subtilis at 50 mg/ml but inactive against other bacterial, yeast and fungal strains tested. Researchers in India reported a weak activity against several fungal strains with the leaf essential oil.
The essential oil of the flowers has yielded much better antimicrobial results than the plant itself. In 1979, researchers in India reported a strong activity against 10 strains of fungi in vitro using the essential oil of ayapana flowers. In 1993, the essential oil from the flowers of ayapana was
reported to possess antibacterial (against staph, cholera, pneumonia, and shigella), as well as antiparasitic (Ascaris), and anthelminitic (Taenia) actions by researchers in India. In an early animal study, the flower essential oil injected into mice was reported to have CNS depressant, analgesic, and sedative effects (as well as an in vitro antibacterial effect).
Several universities are supporting research concerning ayapana’s use as an additive to stored food crops to keep
common pests and insects from feeding on them.
|Leslie Taylor's 2013 Update on Ayapana
Researchers in Indonesia reported that the traditional use of ayapana for the skin was confirmed in their study published in 2012. They indicated that a methanol extract of ayapana could whiten the skin by interfering with melanogenesis. Other researchers reported in 2012 that ayapana had evidenced significant anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving actions in mice. Their acute toxicity studies in mice showed that the extract was non-toxic up to the maximum dose of 2000 mg/kg of body weight. These results are in agreement with an earlier study in 2009, that reported a similar finding with the alcoholic extract of ayapana and both the findings unequivocally confirm the presence of active principles mediating pain and inflammation in this plant. Other researchers confirmed ayapana's traditional uses as an anthelmintic (an agent that kills or expels intestinal worms) in their research published in 2012.
In 2008, researchers in Bangladesh reported various crude extracts of ayapana evidenced good antimicrobial activity against 11 human pathogenic bacteria and six phytopathogenic fungi. In 2011, Indian researchers re-confirmed ayapana's antibacterial actions but reported it only had a mild or moderate activity against the antibiotic-resistant pathogens they tested it against. In 2010, other researchers tested the essential oil of the aerial parts of ayapana and reported the oil had moderate antibacterial actions and strong antifungal actions. Earlier, in 2008, French researchers studying ayapana reported it contained significant amounts of a chemical named thymohydroquinone. This chemical has been documented with antimicrobial, anti-tumorous, neuroprotective, antihistamine, and COX-inhibitor activity. The essential oil also contain appreciable amounts of 2-tert butyl-1, 4-methoxybenzene and b-selinene as reported in other published research.
CURRENT PRACTICAL USES
Several companies specializing in “amazon remedies” have launched products into the U.S. natural products market recently that classify their products as Eupatorium triplinerve and Eupatorium ayapana. However, consumers should be aware that these products are not, in fact, the ayapana plant described herein. These companies are using the Peruvian common name of “asmachilca” to market their product. This plant, is in fact, a completely different plant that derives from the mid- to high-Andes region up to 4000 m in elevation (and is not found in the Amazon at all). It is properly classified as Aristeguieta gayana (which has a synonym of
Eupatorium gayanum), but it is NOT Eupatorium ayapana. Asmachilca is the indigenous name
given to this plant by the Quechua or Ketchwa people of the Andes in Peru and Ecuador, and,
in their herbal medicine system, this plant is mostly employed for asthma and as a diuretic.
There are no published clinical studies, laboratory tests, chemical analyses, or toxicity studies on asmachilca, which is probably why these companies are trying to market their products incorrectly under the Eupatorium ayapana name instead.
While ayapana remains a popular herbal remedy in Peru today, due to the misleading or inaccurate marketing issues here, it is unclear whether there are actually any true Ayapana triplinervis products for consumers to choose from in the United States today. American consumers should consider these types of issues when looking for a reliable source of South American botanical products as well as reliable information about them.
| AYAPANA PLANT SUMMARY |
Main Preparation Method: infusion |
Main Actions (in order):
stomachic, pectoral, anti-ulcerous, vulnerary, antitumorous
Properties/Actions Documented by Research:
- as a stomachic for digestive problems (nausea, vomiting, stomachaches)
- for coughs, sore throat, colds, and bronchitis.
- for ulcers (mouth, skin, gastric)
- for cuts, scrapes, and wounds
- for tumors
analgesic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifeedant, antifungal, antiparasitic, anthelminitic, CNS depressant, pesticidal, sedative
Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use:
antiseptic, antineoplastic, antitussive, antiulcerous, astringent, cardiotonic, cicatrizant, depurative, diaphoretic, emollient, hemostat, hepatoprotector, laxative, sedative, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, sudorific, vulnerary
Cautions: Contains natural coumarins which may thin the blood.
Traditional Preparation: Generally, if the entire plant is prepared into a natural remedy, a decoction method is use. When using the leaves, dried or fresh, an infusion method is typically used.
See Traditional Herbal Remedies Preparation Methods page if necessary for definitions.
Contraindications: Ayapana leaves contain naturally occurring coumarins. Coumarin has an anti-coagulant and blood thinning effect and is a precursor to coumadin drugs. Consult with your physician before taking this plant if you are taking coumadin drugs or if coumadin anticoagulant type drugs are contraindicated for your condition.
Drug Interactions: Ayapana may enhance or increase the effect of blood-thinning medications.
WORLDWIDE ETHNOMEDICAL USES
||to stimulate menstruation, for tumors|
||as an astringent, emollient, sedative, stimulant, tonic, and sudorific; for angina, cholera, coughs, diarrhea, ear infections, eye infections, fevers, gastric ulcers, gingivitis, headaches, indigestion, insomnia, mouth ulcers, nausea, skin ulcers, snakebite, sore throat, vomiting, and wounds|
||as an hemostatic, antiseptic, cardiac stimulant, emetic, diaphoretic and laxative; used in ulcers and hemorrhages|
as an alexiteric, digestive, febrifuge, laxative, and sudorific; for colds, diarrhea, flu, headaches, hypertension, mouth sores, mouth ulcers, nausea, ulcers, and vomiting|
||as a cardiotonic, diaphoretic, emetic, hemostat, laxative, stimulant and tonic|
||as a sudorific; for bronchitis and diarrhea|
||as an alterative, antiscorbutic, emetic, diaphoretic, stimulant, and tonic; for bowel problems, cold, diarrhea, dyspepsia, fevers, flatulence, headaches, lung conditions, and ulcers |
||as a astringent, antineoplastic, cicatrizant, depurative, febrifuge, hepatoprotector, stimulant, stomachic, sudorific; for colic, diarrhea, edema, hemorrhages, indigestion, snakebite, stomachache, tetanus, tumors, vomiting, urinary tract inflammation, wounds|
||as a sudorific and tonic; for fevers|
||for chest colds, constipation, fevers, flu, pneumonia, and yellow fever|
||for cholera, indigestion, and respiratory complaints|
Published Third-Party Research on Ayapana
The above text has been authored by Leslie Taylor and copyrighted © 2006 to present. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, including websites, without written permission.
† The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the
Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant
database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not
intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease.
Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.
All available third-party research on ayapana can be found at PubMed.
A partial listing of the published research on ayapana is shown below:
Bose, P. K., et al. “Haemostatic agents. Part II. Experiments with ayapanin and ayapin.” Nature 1937; 139: 515.
Bose. P.K., et al. “Haemostatic agents. Part I. Experiments with avapanin and ayapin.” Annals Biochem. Expt. Med. 1931; 1: 311-316.
da Souza, J. A., et al. “Blood coagulation activity of the Ayapin, (6,7-metilen-dioxy-coumarin) obtained from Alomia fastigiata Benth (Compositae).” Rev. Fac. Farm. Odontol. Araraquara. 1974 Jul-Dec; 8(2): 123-7.
Adaval, S. C., et al. “Effect of vitamin K 3 and ayapana on blood coagulation of normal buffalo calves.” Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 1970 Jul; 14(3): 207.
Anti-inflammatory & Pain-relieving Actions:
Parimala, K., et al. "Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of petroleum-ether extract of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl." Int J Life Sci Pharm Res 2012 3(2): 12-18.
Cheriyan, B., et al. "Screening of alcoholic extract of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl and its fractions for its antinociceptive activity." Indian Drugs. 2009; 46(10): 797-802.
Anthelmintic (worm-expelling) Actions:
Subash, K., et al. "The Anthelmintic Activity of Eupatorium triplinerve and Alpinia galanga in Pheritima posthuma and Ascardia galli: A Comparative Study." J Clin Diag Res. 2012 Aug; 6(6): 947-950
Cytotoxic & Anticancerous Actions:
Riveiro, M., et al. "Toward establishing structure-activity relationships for oxygenated coumarins as differentiation inducers of promonocytic leukemic cells." Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2009 Sep 15; 17(18): 6547-59.
Kawase, M., et al. “Coumarin derivatives with tumor-specific cytotoxicity and multidrug resistance reversal activity.” In Vivo. 2005 Jul-Aug; 19(4): 705-11.
Watanabe, J., et al. “Coumarin and flavone derivatives from estragon and thyme as
inhibitors of chemical mediator release from RBL-2H3 Cells.” Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2005; 69(1): 1-6.
Riveiro, M., et al. "Induction of cell differentiation in human leukemia U-937 cells by 5-oxygenated-6,7-methylenedioxycoumarins from Pterocaulon polystachyum." Cancer Lett. 2004 Jul 16; 210(2): 179-88.
Scio, E., et al. "Diterpenes from Alomia myriadenia (Asteraceae) with cytotoxic and trypanocidal activity." Phytochemistry. 2003 Nov;64(6): 1125-31.
Liver Protective Actions
Sancheti, S., et al. "Ameliorative effects of 7-methylcoumarin and 7-methoxycoumarin against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats." Drug Chem Toxicol. 2013 Jan;36(1):42-7.
Bose, P., et al. "Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Eupatorium ayapana against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Iranian Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2007; 6: 27-33.
Arung, R., et al. "Validation of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl leaves, a skin care herb from East Kalimantan, using a melanin biosynthesis assay." J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2012 Apr;5(2):87-92.
Narayanan, A., et al. "Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Benef Microbes. 2011 Sep;2(3):235-43.
Begum, J., et al. "Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl. Aerial parts." Asian Jr. of Microbiol. Biotech. Env. Sci. 2010; 12: 543-547.
Rahman, S., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Eupatorium triplinerve Vehl. against some human pathogenic bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi." Bangladesh J. of Bot. 2008 June; (1)37: 89-92.
Stein, A., et al. "Antifungal activity of some coumarins obtained from species of Pterocaulon (Asteraceae)." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Aug 11; 107(1): 95-8.
Prsts, E., et al. "Antifungal activity of a new phenolic compound from capitulum of a head rot-resistant sunflower genotype." J. Chem. Ecol. 2007 Dec; 33(12): 2245-53.
Jelager, L., et al. “Antibacterial and antifungal activity of medicinal plants of Mauritius.” Pharmaceutical Biol. 1998; 36:153-161.
Gupta, M., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of Eupatorium ayapana.” Fitoterapia. 2002; 73 (2):168-170.
Verpoorter, R., et al. “Medicinal plants of Surinam. IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1987; 21: 315-318.
Chaurasia, S. C., et al. “Activity of essential oils of three medicinal plants against various pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungi. Indian J. Hosp. Pharm. 1978; 15 pp. 139-141.
Sharma, S. K., et al. “The antifungal activity of some essential oils.” Indian Drugs Pharm Ind.. 1979; (14) 1: 3-6.
Garg, S. C., et al. “Studies on the essential oil from the flowers of Eupatorium triplinerve.” Indian Perfum 1993; 37 (4): 318-323.
Kokate, C. K., et al. “Pharmacological studies on the essential oil of Eupatorium triplinerve. I. Effects on the central nervous system and antimicrobial activity.” Flavour. 1971; 2 (3): 177-180.
Insecticidal and Antifeedant Actions:
Vera, N., et al. "Toxicity and synergism in the feeding deterrence of some coumarins on Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)." Chem. Biodivers. 2006 Jan; 3(1) :21-6.
Facknath, S., et al. “Response of three important insect pests of horticultural crops in Mauritius to extracts of Ayapana triplinervis.” Journal of Applied Entomology 1999b.
Lalljee B., et al. “Biocidal potential of Eupatorium ayapana extracts”. Book of Abstracts. Symposium on Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Crop Production, 2-4 Dec. 1997, IARI, New Delhi, India. page 64.
REFERENCED QUOTES ON AYAPANA
25. "Ayapana triplinerve (Vahl) King & H. Robinson
NAMES: Aiapana, iapana, japana, japana-branca.
USES: The expressed juice and infusion of the whole plant are tonic, stimulant.
astringent, antidysenteric, and sudorific; for cough and inflamed
throat. Externally for curing gingivitis and aphthae. Leaf juice is a
cicatrizant and highly reputed against snakebite."
* The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the
Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant
database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.
© Copyrighted 1996
to present by Leslie Taylor, Milam County, TX 77857.
All rights reserved. Please read the Conditions of Use, and Copyright Statement for this web page and web site.
Last updated 2-11-2013