Artichoke - Cynara scolymus Artichoke - Cynara scolymus

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(Cynara scolymus)

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Artichoke - Cynara scolymus


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  • Family: Asteraceae
    Genus: Cynara
    Species: scolymus
    Synonyms: None
    Common Names: Globe artichoke, alcachofra, alcachofera, artichaut, tyosen-azami
    Part Used: Leaves, flowers

    From The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs:

    Main Actions Other Actions Standard Dosage
  • reduces cholesterol
  • dries secretions
  • Leaves
  • lowers blood pressure
  • supports heart
  • Infusion: 1-3 cups daily
  • stimulates bile
  • cleanses blood
  • Liquid Extract: 2-3 ml with
  • supports liver
  • increases urination
  • each meal
  • supports gallbladder
  •   Capsules: 2-3 g 3 times daily
  • enhances digestion
  •   Standardized Extracts:
  • fights free radicals
  •   follow label directions
  • detoxifies

    Alcachofra is the Brazilian name for the globe artichoke. A member of the milk thistle family, it grows to a height of about 2 m and produces a large, violet-green flower head. The flower petals and fleshy flower bottoms are eaten as a vegetable throughout the world, which has led to its commercial cultivation in many parts of South and North America (chiefly California) as well as in Europe. The artichoke was used as a food and medicine by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans; in Rome, the artichoke was an important menu item at feasts. It wasn't until the fifteenth century, however, that it made its appearance throughout Europe.

    Tribal & Herbal Medicine Uses

    Artichoke has been used in traditional medicine for centuries as a specific liver and gallbladder remedy. In Brazilian herbal medicine systems, leaf preparations are used for liver and gallbladder problems, diabetes, high cholesterol, hypertension, anemia, diarrhea (and elimination in general), fevers, ulcers, and gout. In Europe, it is also used for liver and gallbladder disorders; in several countries, standardized herbal drugs are manufactured and sold as prescription drugs for high cholesterol and digestive and liver disorders. Other uses around the world include treatment for dyspepsia and chronic albuminuria. In France, a patent has been filed that describes an artichoke extract for treating liver disease, high cholesterol levels, and kidney insufficiency. In all herbal medicine systems where it is employed, artichoke is used to increase bile production in the liver, increase the flow of bile from the gallbladder, and to increases the contractive power of the bile duct. These bile actions are beneficial in many digestive, gallbladder, and liver disorders. Artichoke is also often used to mobilize fatty stores in the liver and detoxify it, and as a natural aid to lower cholesterol.

    Plant Chemicals

    The artichoke is popular for its pleasant bitter taste, which is attributed mostly to a plant chemical called cynarin found in the green parts of the plant. Cynarin is considered one of artichoke's main biologically active chemicals. It occurs in the highest concentration in the leaves of the plant, which is why leaf extracts are most commonly employed in herbal medicine. Other documented "active" chemicals include flavonoids, sesquiterpene lactones, polyphenols and caffeoylquinic acids.

    In the 1970s, European scientists first documented cynarin's ability to lower cholesterol in humans. Over the years, other researchers have continued to document artichoke's or cynarin's effect in this area. One of the more recent studies, published in 2000, was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study that used an artichoke leaf extract that was standardized to its cynarin content. For six weeks, 143 patients with high cholesterol were given the extract; at the end of the test, results showed a decrease of 10%-15% in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), and ratio of LDL to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Scientists now report that the cholesterol-lowering effect of artichoke can be attributed to chemicals other than just cynarin, including several newly discovered ones.

    The liver detoxifying and protective properties of artichoke first came to the attention of researchers in 1966 (in a study that supported its effect on liver regeneration in rats). A 1987 study that focused on the effects of rat liver cells subjected to harmful chemical agents found both cynarin and caffeic acids (both in artichoke) to have significant protective effects.

    Artichoke's main plant chemicals are caffeic acid, caffeoylquinic acids, caryophyllene, chlorogenic acid, cyanidol glucosides, cynaragenin, cynarapicrin, cynaratriol, cynarin, cynarolide, decanal, eugenol, ferulic acid, flavonoids, folacin, glyceric acid, glycolic acid, heteroside-B, inulin, isoamerboin, lauric acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, luteolin glucosides, myristic acid, neochlorogenic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, pseudotaraxasterol, scolymoside, silymarin, sitosterol, stearic acid, stigmasterol, and taraxasterol.

    Biological Activities & Clinical Research

    Investigations are still being conducted on artichoke's beneficial effects on liver and gallbladder functions. The most recently documented finding, in 2002, noted that an artichoke leaf extract reversed damage done by harmful chemicals in rat liver cells and, in doing so, enhanced bile production.

    A portion of artichoke's liver protective properties is thought to be attributed to its documented antioxidant actions. A 2002 study focused on the antioxidant effects of artichoke extract in cultured blood vessel cells and reported that the extract demonstrated "marked protective properties against oxidative stress induced by inflammatory mediators . . ." Artichoke's antioxidant properties were also confirmed in an earlier (2000) study that focused on human white blood cells under various induced oxidative stresses.

    A 1999 clinical investigation focused on gallbladder function. It "showed the efficacy and safety of artichoke extracts (Cynara scolymus L.) in the treatment of hepatobiliary dysfunction and digestive complaints, such as sensation of fullness, loss of appetite, nausea and abdominal pain." A 2000 study took this notion a step further. It was known that artichoke extract was indicated for dyspepsia, a digestive disorder involving the esophagus, duodenum, and upper gastrointestinal tract, but there are many symptom overlaps between dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A subgroup of patients with IBS was distilled from the dyspepsia study group and was monitored for 6 weeks after the original study had ended. Of the IBS patients, 96% rated artichoke leaf extract as better than or at least equal to previous therapies administered for their IBS symptoms.

    Current Practical Uses

    The history of artichoke is a perfect example of science finally catching up to the longstanding traditional uses of a medicinal plant. While scientists still argue today over which specific chemical or group of chemicals is responsible for each documented beneficial action, the traditional uses for high cholesterol, as well as for liver, gallbladder, and digestive disorders, are being validated. While many Europeans still have to see their doctors for an artichoke extract prescription, concentrated natural leaf extracts and standardized extracts are widely available in the United States at health food stores. With the growing American trend to find more natural and healthy alternatives, these products will probably gain in popularity as consumers learn more of the most recent research studies. However, the most effective method to control cholesterol is with a sensible diet. Unfortunately, there are no magic bullets.

    Main Actions (in order):
    liver and gallbladder bile stimulant, hepatoprotective (liver protector), antihepatotoxic (liver detoxifier), hypocholesterolemic (lowers cholesterol)

    Main Uses:

    1. for gallstones and as a liver and gallbladder bile stimulant
    2. for high cholesterol
    3. for digestive disorders
    4. for irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn's disease, and other bowel problems
    5. to support liver function
    Properties/Actions Documented by Research:
    antihepatotoxic (clears toxins in liver), antioxidant, liver and gallbladder bile stimulator, hepatoprotective (liver protector), hepatotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the liver), hypocholesterolemic (lowers cholesterol)

    Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use:
    astringent, blood cleanser, cardiotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the heart), detoxifier, digestive stimulant, diuretic, hypotensive (lowers blood pressure), stimulant, tonic (tones, balances, strengthens)

    Cautions: none

    Traditional Preparation: Traditionally, 1 to 3 cups of a standard leaf infusion are taken daily after meals; 3-4 ml of a concentrated 4:1 liquid extract, or 3-5 g daily of dried herb in capsules, or tablets can be substituted, if desired. With standardized extract products, follow the instructions on the product label.

    Contraindications: None reported for internal use. Dermatitis following contact with the fresh plant and leaves has been reported.

    Artichoke has been documented in traditional uses to be hypoglycemic; however, no clinical studies have been published to confirm this action. Diabetics and people with hypoglycemia should use this plant product with caution and monitor their blood sugar levels closely in anticipation of these possible effects.

    Drug Interactions: Artichoke extracts have been documented to lower blood cholesterol in human and animal studies and, as such, may potentiate the effects of cholesterol-lowering and statin drugs.

    Brazil for acne, anemia, arthritis, arteriosclerosis, asthma, bile insufficiency, blood cleansing, bronchitis, diabetes, diarrhea, dyspepsia, digestive disorders, dandruff, fever, flatulence, gallbladder disorders, gallstones, gout, heart function, hemorrhage, hemorrhoids, high cholesterol, hypertension, hyperglycemia, inflammation, kidney insufficiency, liver disorders, nephritis, obesity, prostatitis, rheumatism, seborriasis, ulcers, urethritis, urinary disorders, and as an astringent and vasoconstrictor
    for bile insufficiency, digestive problems, gallbladder disorders
    Europe for bile insufficiency, cancer, detoxification, dyspepsia, gallbladder disorders, high cholesterol, hyperglycemia, jaundice, liver disorders, nausea
    Haiti for edema, hypertension, kidney disorders, liver problems, urinary insufficiency
    Mexico for cystitis, gallstones, hypertension, liver disorders
    Elsewhere for diabetes, edema, rheumatism, urinary insufficiency

    The above text has been printed from The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs by Leslie Taylor, copyrighted © 2005 All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, including websites, without written permission.

    † The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.

    Referenced Quotes on Artichoke

    1. "Alcachofra is Brazilian artichoke. It effectively flushes uric acid from the system and is used as a diuretic. It increases gall bladder secretions and is used as an auxiliary remedy for digestive disorders. Liver disorders, especially those associated with alcoholism and malaria benefit from Alcachofra. It is thought to have a cleansing and healing effect on both the liver and gall bladder. Alcachofra's high content of iron nourishes the blood. It has also been found to decrease cholesterol and blood pressure. Caution: Avoid if breast-feeding. Alcachofra may decrease milk production."

    2. "Artichoke leaf has a reputation as a choleretic (stimulates bile), diuretic and general stimulant. It helps to neutralize excessive acid in the body. It has been used for jaundice and dropsy."

    3. "ACTIONS: Aids elimination of uric acid, Fortifies liver and gallbladder, Nourishes blood. TRADITIONAL USE: Alcachofra (Brazilian Artichoke) has a cleansing and healing effect on the liver and gallbladder. Also know to neutralize acidity in the system. High in nutrients known to have diuretic effects. Flushes uric acid from the system. Augments the secretion of bile. Used as an auxiliary in the treatment of liver and digestive disorders. Nourishes the blood and relieves arterial pressure. Helpful in treating rheumatoid arthritis. MERIDIAN INDICATIONS: Clears liver congestion, Nourishes liver blood, Increases Kidney Yang EAV POINTS: Liver, Gallbladder, Spleen."

    14. "Artichoke extract and/or cynarin, the main active consituent, has cholagogue [increases bile production by the liver]/ choleretic [increases flow of bile from the gallbladder] / choliokinetic action [ increases the contractive power of the bile duct].
    Research has shown that caffeic acid, a component of cynarin, is almost as effective as pure cynarin, suggesting that caffeic acid is the substance responsible for the choleretic action.
    Artichoke has been shown to increase the production and volume of bile flow by as much as four times normal in a 12-hour period.
    Artichoke protects liver from poisonous effects of toxins in a manner similar to silymarin from milk thistle. It is able to prevent liver damage from the same wide range of poisons as milk thistle. Artichoke extract is also able to stimulate the regeneration of liver cells in much the same manner as does silymayin. The usefulness of artichoke for preventing blood and liver cholesterol elevation in the presence of toxins such as alcohol is also of note. Application in today's world would also include the prevention of liver damage due to air-, water- and food-borne toxins. A French patent describes an artichoke extract for treating liver disease, high cholesterol levels and kidney insufficiency. Cynarin, and not pure caffeic acid, appears to be the component most responsible for this action.
    Artichoke has lipid-producing and anticholesterolemic action. Artichoke reduces blood fats. It reduces cholesterol and cholinesterase levels. In simplest terms, the net effect of artichoke extract appears to be the result of both an activation of and an interference with cholesterol metabolism. That is, it mobilizes fat stores from the liver and other tissues such as white adipose tissue, and these fats pour into the blood from which they are subsequently excreted from the body. Cynarin decreases the rate of cholesterol synthesis in the liver, enchances biliary excretion of cholesterol, and increases conversion towards the bile acids. Not only cholesterol but other blood fats such as triglycerides can be reduced through the use of artichoke."

    15. "Scientific evidence supports the use of artichoke as a liver remedy. Cynarin is the active ingredient contained in the plant, and its highest concentration is in the leaves. According to reports, cynara (artichoke leaves) extract has demonstrated significant liver regenerating and protecting effects."

    Third-Party Published Research on Artichoke

    All available third-party research on artichoke can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published research on artichoke is shown below:

    Anti-cholesterol Actions:
    Qiang, Z., et al. "Artichoke extract lowered plasma cholesterol and increased fecal bile acids in Golden Syrian hamsters." Phytother Res. 2012 Jul;26(7):1048-52.
    Küskü-Kiraz, Z., et al. "Artichoke leaf extract reduces oxidative stress and lipoprotein dyshomeostasis in rats fed on high cholesterol diet." Phytother Res. 2010 Apr;24(4):565-70.
    Küçükgergin, C., et al. "Effect of artichoke leaf extract on hepatic and cardiac oxidative stress in rats fed on high cholesterol diet." Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010 Jun;135(1-3):264-74.
    Wider, B., et al. "Artichoke leaf extract for treating hypercholesterolaemia." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD003335.
    Bundy, R. et al. "Artichoke leaf extract (Cynara scolymus) reduces plasma cholesterol in otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial." Phytomedicine. 2008; 15(9): 668-75.
    Lupattelli, G., et al. “Artichoke juice improves endothelial function in hyperlipemia.” Life Sci. 2004 Dec; 76(7):775-82.
    Thompson Coon, J. S., et al. “Herbs for serum cholesterol reduction: a systematic view.” J. Fam. Pract. 2003; 52(6): 468-78.
    Shimoda, H., et al. “Anti-hyperlipidemic sesquiterpenes and new sesquiterpene glycosides from the leaves of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.): structure requirement and mode of action.” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2003; 13(2): 223–28.
    Gebhardt, R. “Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in HepG2 cells by artichoke extracts is reinforced by glucosidase pretreatment.” Phytother. Res. 2002; 16(4): 368–72.
    Wegener, T. “The status of herbal antilipemic agents.” Wien. Med. Wochenschr. 2002; 152(15-16): 412-7.
    Englisch, W., et al. “Efficacy of artichoke dry extract in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia.” Arzneimittelforschung 2000; 40(3): 260–65.
    Gebhardt, R. “Anticholestatic activity of flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and of their metabolites.” Med. Sci. Monit. 2001 May; 7 Suppl 1:316-20.
    Gebhardt, R. “Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in primary cultured rat hepatocytes by artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extracts.” J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1998; 286(3): 1122–28.
    Brown, J. E., et al. “Luteolin-rich artichoke extract protects low density lipoprotein from oxidation in vitro.Free Radic. Res. 1990; 29(3): 247–55.
    Wojcicki, J., et al. “Cynarin and hyperlipidemia” Wiad. Lek. 1977 Oct; 30(19): 1539-41
    Pristautz, H., et al. “Cynarin in the modern management of hyperlipemia.” Wien. Med. Wochenschr. 1975; 125(49): 705–9.
    Montini, M., et al. “Controlled application of cynarin in the treatment of hyperlipemic syndrome. Observations in 60 cases.” Arzneimittelforschung 1975; 25(8): 1311–14.
    Bobnis, W., et al. “Case of primary hyperlipemia treated with cynarin.” Wiad. Lek. 1973; 26(13): 1267–70.
    Grogan, J. L., et al. “Potential hypocholesterolemic agents: dicinnamoyl esters as analogs of cynarin.” J. Pharm. Sci. 1972; 61(5): 802–3.

    Digestive Actions:
    Marteau, P. "Therapy: Probiotic-enriched artichokes for abdominal discomfort." Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Mar 20;9(5):251-2.
    Riezzo, G., et al. "Randomised clinical trial: efficacy of Lactobacillus paracasei-enriched artichokes in the treatment of patients with functional constipation--a double-blind, controlled, crossover study." Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Feb;35(4):441-50.
    Valerio, F., et al. "Role of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei LMGP22043 carried by artichokes in influencing faecal bacteria and biochemical parameters in human subjects." J Appl Microbiol. 2011 Jul;111(1):155-64.
    Costabile, A., et al. "A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to establish the bifidogenic effect of a very-long-chain inulin extracted from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) in healthy human subjects." Br J Nutr. 2010 Oct;104(7):1007-17.
    Valerio, F., et al. "Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei-enriched artichokes on constipated patients: a pilot study." J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010 Sep;44 Suppl 1:S49-53.
    Sannia, A. "[Phytotherapy with a mixture of dry extracts with hepato-protective effects containing artichoke leaves in the management of functional dyspepsia symptoms]." Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol. 2010 Jun;56(2):93-9.
    Ishida, K., et al. "Effects of artichoke leaf extract on acute gastric mucosal injury in rats." Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33(2):223-9.
    Verspohl, E., et al. "Effect of two artichoke extracts (36_U and 36_EB) on rat ileum (with respect to bowel syndrome) and the peristaltic threshold." Phytomedicine. 2008 Apr 16.
    Emendorfer, F., et al. “ Antispasmodic activity of fractions and cynaropicrin from Cynara scolymus on guinea-pig ileum.” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2005; 28(5): 902-4.
    Emendorfer, F., et al. “Evaluation of the relaxant action of some Brazilian medicinal plants in isolated guinea-pig ileum and rat duodenum.” J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 2005 Mar; 8(1): 63-8.
    Wittemer, S. M., et al. “ Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids after oral administration of Artichoke leaf extracts in humans.” Phytomedicine. 2005; 12(1-2): 28-38.
    Bundy, R., et al. “Artichoke leaf extract reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and improves quality of life in otherwise healthy volunteers suffering from concomitant dyspepsia: a subset analysis.” J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2004 Aug; 10(4): 667-9.
    Holtmann, G., et al. “Efficacy of artichoke leaf extract in the treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia: a six-week placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre trial.” Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2003 Dec; 18(11-12): 1099-105.
    Walker, A. F., et al. “Artichoke leaf extract reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in a post-marketing surveillance study.” Phytother. Res. 2001; 15(1): 58-61.
    Wegener, T., et al. “Pharmacological properties and therapeutic profile of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.)” Wien. Med. Wochenschr. 1999; 149(8-10): 241-7. 

    Actions on Gallstones & the Gallbladder:
    Glasl, S., et al. "Choleretic effects of the Mongolian medicinal plant Saussurea amara in the isolated perfused rat liver." Planta Med. 2006 Dec 19;
    Benedek, B., et al. "Choleretic effects of yarrow (Achillea millefolium S.L.) in the isolated perfused rat liver." Phytomedicine. 2006 Nov; 13(9-10): 702-6.
    Hiner, A. N., et al. “ Kinetic study of the effects of calcium ions on cationic artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) peroxidase: calcium binding, steady-state kinetics and reactions with hydrogen peroxide.” Biochimie. 2004; 86(9-10): 667-76.
    Saenz Rodriguez, T., et al. “Choleretic activity and biliary elimination of lipids and bile acids induced by an artichoke leaf extract in rats.” Phytomedicine. 2002 Dec; 9(8): 687-93.
    Gebhardt, R. “Anticholestatic activity of flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and of their metabolites.” Med. Sci. Monit. 2001; (7) Suppl. 1: 316–20.

    Liver Protective Actions:
    Metwally, N., et al. "The protective effects of fish oil and artichoke on hepatocellular carcinoma in rats." Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011 Dec;15(12):1429-44.
    Juzyszyn, Z., et al. "The effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on respiratory chain system activity in rat liver mitochondria." Phytother Res. 2010 Jun;24 Suppl 2:S123-8.
    Huber, R., et al. "Artichoke leave extract for chronic hepatitis C - a pilot study." Phytomedicine. 2009 Sep; 16(9): 801-4.
    Tkachenko, E., et al."Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome: equality of pathogenetic mechanisms and therapeutic approaches." Eksp. Klin. Gastroenterol. 2008; (2): 92-6.
    Mehmetçik, G., et al. "Effect of pretreatment with artichoke extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury and oxidative stress." Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 2008 Sep; 60(6): 475-80.
    Miccadei, S.,et al., "Antioxidative and apoptotic properties of polyphenolic extracts from edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) on cultured rat hepatocytes and on human hepatoma cells." Nutr. Cancer. 2008; 60(2): 276-83.
    Speroni, E., et al. “Efficacy of different Cynara scolymus preparations on liver complaints.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Jun; 86(2-3): 203-11.
    Betancor-Fernandez, A., et al. “Screening pharmaceutical preparations containing extracts of turmeric rhizome, artichoke leaf, devil's claw root and garlic or salmon oil for antioxidant capacity.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2003; 55(7): 981-6.
    Gebhardt, R. “Prevention of taurolithate-induced hepatic bile canalicular distortions by HPLC-characterized extracts of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaves.” Planta Med. 2002; 68(9): 776–79.
    Aktay, G., et al. “Hepatoprotective effects of Turkish folk remedies on experimental liver injury.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov; 73(1-2): 121-9.
    Adzet, T., et al. “Hepatoprotective activity of polyphenolic compounds from Cynara scolymus against CCl4 toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.” J. Nat. Prod. 1987; 50(4): 612–17.
    Maros, T., et al. “Effects of Cynara scolymus extracts on the regeneration of rat liver. 1.” Arzneimittelforschung 1966; 16(2): 127–29.

    Anti-Diabetic Actions:
    Fantini, N., et al. "Evidence of glycemia-lowering effect by a Cynara scolymus L. extract in normal and obese rats." Phytother Res. 2011 Mar;25(3):463-6.

    Antioxidant, Anti-Cancerous, & Cellular Protective Actions:
    AMileo, A., et al. "Artichoke polyphenols induce apoptosis and decrease the invasive potential of the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231." J Cell Physiol. 2012 Sep;227(9):3301-9.
    Metwally, N., et al. "The protective effects of fish oil and artichoke on hepatocellular carcinoma in rats." Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011 Dec;15(12):1429-44.
    Menghini, L., et al. "Antiproliferative, protective and antioxidant effects of artichoke, dandelion, turmeric and rosemary extracts and their formulation." Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2010 Apr-Jun;23(2):601-10.
    Küçükgergin, C., et al. "Effect of Artichoke Leaf Extract on Hepatic and Cardiac Oxidative Stress in Rats Fed on High Cholesterol Diet." Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2009 Aug 4.
    Juzyszyn, Z., The effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on ROS generation in HUVEC cells. Phytother. Res. 2008; 22(9): 1159-61.
    Skarpanska-Stejnborn, A., et al. "The influence of supplementation with artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on selected redox parameters in rowers." Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 2008 Jun; 18(3): 313-27.
    Juzyszyn, Z., et al. "Effect of artichoke extract (Cynara scolymus L.) on palmitic-1-14C acid oxidation in rats." Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2008; 52(5): 589-94.
    Li, H., et al. “Flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) up-regulate endothelial-type nitric-oxide synthase gene expression in human endothelial cells.” J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2004 Sep; 310(3): 926-32.
    Stoev, S. D., et al. “Experimental mycotoxicosis in chickens induced by ochratoxin A and penicillic acid and intervention with natural plant extracts.” Vet. Res. Commun. 2004 Nov; 28(8): 727-46.
    Jimenez-Escrig, A., et al. “In vitro antioxidant activities of edible artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and effect on biomarkers of antioxidants in rats.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003 Aug; 51(18): 5540-5.
    Wang, M., et al. “Analysis of antioxidative phenolic compounds in artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.).” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003 Jan; 51(3): 601-8.
    Llorach, R., et al. “Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) byproducts as a potential source of health-promoting antioxidant phenolics.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002 Jun; 50(12): 3458-64.
    Cervellati, R., et al. “Evaluation of antioxidant activity of some natural polyphenolic compounds using the Briggs-Rauscher reaction method.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002 Dec; 50(26): 7504-9.
    Zapolska-Downar, D., et al. “Protective properties of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) against oxidative stress induced in cultured endothelial cells and monocytes.” Life Sci. 2002; 71(24): 2897.
    Perez-Garcia, F., et al. “Activity of artichoke leaf extract on reactive oxygen in human leukocytes.” Free Rad. Res. 2000; 33(5): 661–65.
    Gebhardt, R., et al. “Antioxidative and protective properties of extracts from leaves of the artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) against hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in cultured rat hepatocytes.” Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1997; 144(2): 279–86.

    Antimicrobial Actions:
    Castillo, S., et al. "Extracts of edible and medicinal plants in inhibition of growth, adherence, and cytotoxin production of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli." J Food Sci. 2011 Aug;76(6):M421-6.
    Yang, B., et al. "Metabolic profile of 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid in rats, an in vivo and in vitro study." Drug Metab. Dispos. 2005; 33(7): 930-6.
    Zhu, X. F., et al. “Antifungal activity of Cynara scolymus L. extracts.” Fitoterapia. 2005 ; 76(1): 108-11.
    Zhu, X., et al. “Phenolic compounds from the leaf extract of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and their antimicrobial activities.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004 Dec; 52(24): 7272-8.

    Toxicity Studies:
    Jacociunas, L., et al. "Artichoke induces genetic toxicity and decreases ethyl methanesulfonate-related DNA damage in chinese hamster ovary cells." J Med Food. 2012 Oct;15(10):873-8.

    * The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.

    © Copyrighted 1996 to present by Leslie Taylor, Milam County, TX 77857.
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    Last updated 2-11-2013