Andiroba -  Carapa guianensis Andiroba - Carapa guianensis

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(Carapa guianensis)

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Andiroba -  Andiroba - Carapa guianensis Andiroba - Carapa guianensis Andiroba - Carapa guianensis PLANT

Andiroba -  Andiroba - Carapa guianensis Andiroba - Carapa guianensis Andiroba - Carapa guianensis


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  • Family: Meliaceae
    Genus: Carapa
    Species: guianensis
    Common Names: andiroba, andiroba-saruba, bastard mahogany, Brazilian mahogany, iandirova, carapa, carapá, cedro macho, crabwood, figueroa, krapa, nandiroba, requia, tangare, y-andiroba
    Part Used: Seed oil, bark, and leaves

    From The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs:

    Main Actions Other Actions Standard Dosage
  • heals wounds
  • soothes skin
  • Seed Oil
  • reduces pain
  • reduces fever
  • External: Applied topically to
  • reduces inflammation
  • prevents tumors
  • skin as needed.
  • kills bacteria
  •   Internal: 2 ml 2-3 times daily
  • relaxes muscles
  • kills parasites
  • expels worms
  • repels insects
  • kills insects

    Andiroba is a tall rainforest tree that grows up to 40 m high. It is in the same family as mahogany, and it has been called Brazilian mahogany or bastard mahogany due to their similarity. It can be found growing wild throughout the Amazon rainforest, usually on rich soils, in swamps, and in the alluvial flats, marshes, and uplands of the Amazon Basin. It can also be found wild or under cultivation in Brazil in the Islands region, Tocantins, Rio Solimoes, and near the seaside. It is one of the large-leafed trees of the rainforest and can be identified by its large and distinctively textured leaves.

    Andiroba wood is soft, yet durable, and much sought by sawmills. It has in the past been shipped to the United States for use in the furniture industry and for other uses. Its durability and impalatability to insects have guaranteed commercial demand for the wood, and as a result, the species has been devastated in all areas near major towns in Amazonia. It could, however, be cultivated easily in the Amazon or other regions of Brazil.

    The andiroba tree produces a brown, woody, four-cornered nut, some 3-4 inches across that resembles a chestnut. The nut contains several oil-rich kernels or seeds that average about 63% oil, which is pale yellow in color. Andiroba oil is a sustainable rainforest product that has a long history of use in South America as well as commercial value. A single tree will produce, on average, about 200 kg of nuts annually. Approximately 6 kg of nuts are required to produce 1 kg (about a liter) of andiroba oil using the traditional extraction method. This traditional method is efficient, if somewhat primitive. The seeds are collected from rivers, where they float after being shed by trees or from the forest floor. They are then boiled in a large pot of water, left for some two weeks until they have rotted, and then squeezed (in a primitive press known as a tipiti) to extract the oil. One consequence of this extraction method is that crude andiroba oil is frequently associated with a red coloring that is derived from the skin of the seeds. Because the oil becomes rancid very quickly, it must be used quickly. Local usage is mostly limited to immediate use or to the manufacture of soap or candles.


    The indigenous peoples in the Amazon have used andiroba in many ways for centuries, and virtually all parts of the tree, as well as the seed oil are utilized. The Munduruku Indians traditionally used the oil for the mummification of human heads taken as war trophies. The Wayãpi, Palikur, and Creole Indian tribes have used andiroba oil to remove ticks from their scalps, for other skin parasites, and even in the process of tanning animal hides. The indigenous tribes of Northwest Amazonia brew the bark, and sometimes the leaves, into a tea for fevers and intestinal worms; they also apply this tea externally for ulcers, skin parasites, and other skin problems. Indians have also used the oil as a solvent for extracting the plant pigments and colorants with which they paint their skin. Several Indian tribes in the Amazon combine andiroba oil with the reddish-orange pigment extracted from annatto seeds. They rub the oily bright orange paste all over their bodies and even into their hair to protect themselves from biting insects and to repel rain water (to which they are constantly exposed in the rainforest).

    Andiroba oil burns well and is used as a natural lamp fuel in the rainforest. In the early 1800s, the street lamps of Belém Brazil were fueled with andiroba oil. Not only does it burn cleanly with little smoke but it also repels mosquitoes, flies, and other pests. Traditional forest dwellers and river people in Brazil called caboclos make a medicinal soap using crude andiroba oil, wood ash, and cocoa skin residue. This soap is especially recommended for the treatment of skin diseases and as an insect repellent. They also apply andiroba oil directly on joints to relieve arthritis pain and mix it with hot water and human milk and drop it into the ear for ear infections. To aid digestion, the bark is soaked in water for a day and 1 cup is taken before meals.

    Many of these uses continue today in the Brazilian herbal medicine systems. Andiroba oil is used by Brazilian city dwellers either in pure form or mixed with other oils or natural products. They apply it externally to wounds and bruises, use it as a massage oil and natural insect repellant, and employ it topically for many skin diseases and conditions, including psoriasis. A common natural remedy in Brazil is prepared by soaking 1/4 of a cabacinha (the fruit of Luffa operculata) in 250 ml of hot andiroba oil for several hours. This warm maceration is rubbed into the skin to relieve arthritis and rheumatism and to cauterize wounds. A teaspoon of this preparation is also gargled for sore throats and taken internally for coughs. Andiroba is also still widely used as an insect repellent and for treating insect bites for both people and animals.

    The oil is commercially manufactured into anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-arthritic, and insect repellant soaps as well as turned into candles that are sold as natural insect repellents. The oil is also used in Brazil as a furniture polish that is thought to protect wooden furniture from termites and other wood-chewing insects.


    Andiroba oil is a rich source of essential fatty acids including oleic, palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids. It yields up to 65% unsaturated fatty acids and can contain up to 9% linoleic acid. (Linoleic acid has shown in various studies over the years to lower cholesterol levels, reduce blood pressure, and provide anticancer benefits.)

    All parts of the andiroba tree (including the oil) tastes very bitter. This bitterness is attributed to a group of terpene chemicals called meliacins, which are very similar to the bitter antimalarial chemicals found in other tropical plants. One of these meliacins, named gedunin, has recently been documented with antiparasitic properties and an antimalarial effect equal to that of quinine.

    Chemical analysis of andiroba oil, bark, and leaves has also identified the presence of another group of chemicals called limonoids. The anti-inflammatory and insect repellent properties of andiroba oil are attributed to the presence of these limonoids, including a novel one which has been named andirobin. Another limonoid called epoxyazadiradione is found in andiroba oil; it has been documented with in vitro antitumor effects (neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma cancer cell lines were tested).

    Main chemicals found in andiroba include andirobin, arachidic acid, acetoxy-gedunins, epoxyazadiradiones, deacetoxygedunins, hydroxylgedunins, gedunins, hexadecenoic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, and stearic acid.


    Tests of crude andiroba oil by Brazilian scientists have produced evidence of its anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties. The bark has also demonstrated in vitro antibacterial activity in another clinical study. Thus far, at least three chemicals found in andiroba have been found to have antiparasitic and/or insecticidal actions. A branch of the Brazilian government has been working with andiroba's insect repellant properties and is soon to produce an insect-repellent product utilizing andiroba oil that will be provided to the military and other government workers who are exposed to mosquitoes and other biting bugs in the forests of Brazil. In 1999, a U.S. patent was filed detailing that andiroba oil, when applied topically, prevented the formation of cellulite through a chemical enzyme-blocking action. (Unfortunately, they reported it didn't have to ability to get rid of existing cellulite). Some of the more recent research has focused on andiroba's anticancerous actions. In 2002, researchers reported that the seed oil could prevent and even reverse cervical dysplasia. Cervical dysplasia is a precancerous condition that can oftentimes develop into cervical cancer. In addition, the leaf, bark, seeds, and flowers have shown some activity against sarcoma cancer cells in vitro, and the crude oil passed a preliminary screening test to predict antitumor activity.

    Leslie Taylor's 2013 Update on Andiroba

    Andiroba oil has been the subject of some recent research concerning its' anti-parasite and insecticidal actions. A Brazilian research group published two studies in 2012 on andiroba oil's ability to kill adult ticks and their eggs. They summarized their research saying: "Thus, the present study showed that the use of this vegetal product would be an alternative way to control the ticks, bringing benefits similar to the ones obtained through the use of synthetic acaricides; however, with less damage to nontarget organisms and the environment as well." A different group of Brazilian researchers also published a study in 2012 confirming that andiroba oil as well as a limonoid fraction had highly effective antimalarial actions in vitro and confirmed that the oil was non-toxic in mice. Yet another group in Brazil testing plants for anti-parasitic actions against intestinal worms and parasites reported in two 2012 studies that andiroba did have an effect, but it was much lower than the other plant extracts they were testing. Andiroba was also shown to be insecticidal against mosquito larva in two studies in 2012, one in 2006 and another published in 2005. Andiroba was also reported to be insecticidal against the fall armyworm in a 2011 study. Andiroba was among the ingredients of a natural insect repellent for humans that was patented in 2012.

    Researchers reported in 2012 that andiroba was able to kill a specific type of bacteria that causes diseases in honeybee hives however its' insecticidal action caused mortality to the bees. In 2012 researchers published a study about the efficacy of a natural herbal combination for the treatment of head lice. The product combined a vinegar extract of another rainforest plant, amargo, which is known to kill the eggs/nits and andiroba oil which they reported asphyxiated the adult lice.

    Andiroba was reported to have anti-allergic actions in a Brazilian study published in 2005. Simultaneously they also reported pain-relieving actions in mice. This action was attributed to various chemicals in andiroba oil called tetranortriterpenoids. In 2011, researchers studying the mechanisms of how specifically these actions took place reported that their in vitro tests indicated andiroba's anti-allergic actions were due to a immune modulation activity which inhibited eosinophil migration and activated T lymphocytes. Eosinophils play an important role in the development of allergic reactions and allergic diseases like asthma. One of these tetranortriterpenoids named gedunin has been the subject of recent anti-allergic research itself. In 2012, researchers reported that gedunin had a "remarkable" effect reducing allergic responses by modulating eosinophil and T lymphocytes in the lungs of mice.

    Andiroba has long been used to enhance wound healing by using it topically on wounds. Interestingly, researchers in the West Indies gave mice andiroba oil internally (in their water rations) and reported in 2010 that it increased wound healing when taken internally. A year later this research group reported that the leaves of the andiroba tree also increased wound healing in mice when used topically and taken internally. Researchers in 2006 tested andiroba's active tetranortriterpenoid fraction for its' anti-inflammatory effect. They gave mice 100-200mg of this fraction orally and reported significant anti-inflammatory actions against chemically-induced arthritis. This effect was mostly attributed to its' ability to modulate various immune system chemicals and reactions responsible for creating inflammation.

    Toxicity studies were conducted in 2008 and researchers reported that the acute and subacute administration did not produce toxic effects in rats in dosages up to 5 gram per kilogram of body weight. However, there was an increase in the ALT serum level and in both absolute and relative liver weights which might indicate a possible liver toxicity. Another toxicity study in 2007 was conducted on pregnant rats and reported no toxic effects in dosages up to 3 g/kg administered over a 7 day period.


    Andiroba oil is well known in Brazil and widely employed to heal many skin conditions and as a natural insect repellant. In the last several years, several andiroba oil products sold in capsules have appeared in Brazilian stores and pharmacies and are recommended for cancer and internal healing. North American practitioners and consumers are just beginning to learn of andiroba's powerful healing properties. Andiroba oil can be applied topically several times daily to rashes, muscle/joint aches and injuries, wounds, insect bites, boils, and ulcers. It can also be used by itself or combined with other oils as a healing and anti-inflammatory massage oil as well as placed in the ears for ear infections. It's also a great natural remedy for ear mites in dogs and cats: just place several drops in the affected ears daily for a week.

    Main Preparation Method: cold pressed oil

    Main Actions (in order):
    analgesic (pain-reliever), anti-inflammatory, insect repellant, antitumorous, wound healer

    Main Uses:

    1. for insect bites and stings
    2. as an insect repellant
    3. for psoriasis, dermatitis, heat rash, skin fungi, and other skin problems
    4. for skin parasites
    5. for skin cancer
    Properties/Actions Documented by Research:
    analgesic (pain-reliever), anti-allergic, antibacterial, anticancerous, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiparasitic, antitumorous, insect repellant

    Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use:
    antiseptic, balsamic, emollient, febrifuge (reduces fever), vermifuge (expels worms), wound healer

    Cautions: none

    Traditional Preparation: For skin conditions, insect bites, and sore muscles and joints, liberally apply the oil topically several times daily. For ear infections, place 2 drops of the oil inside the ears. For internal use, generally 2 ml in a small glass of warm water is taken two or three times daily. This can also be used as a gargle for sore throats.

    Contraindications: None reported.

    Drug Interactions: None reported.

    Amazonia for arthritis, colds, chiggers, digestion, feet (tired), fever, flu, insect bites, itch, leprosy, lice, malaria, mites, parasites, repelling/killing insects, skin problems, tetanus, ulcer, worms
    Brazil for acne, bruises, arthritis, cancer, constipation, cough, cuts, dermatitis, diabetes, diarrhea, ear infections, fevers, hepatitis, herpes, inflammation, bites, malaria, muscle aches, pain, parasites, psoriasis, repelling insects, rheumatism, skin diseases, skin rashes, skin ulcers, sores, splenitis, throat problems, worms
    Guatemala as an insect repellent
    Guyana for inflammation, muscle pain, repelling/killing insects, rheumatism, skin rash, skin problems, ticks, wounds
    Nicaragua for diarrhea, skin problems, and as an astringent
    Panama for arthritis
    Peru for dermatitis, fever, herpes, skin sores, worms
    Trinidad for colds, fever, flu, killing insects, muscle pain, sore feet, and as a massage oil
    Venezuela for itch, leprosy, malaria, parasites, skin problems
    Elsewhere for arthritis, herpes, repelling/killing insects, skin disorders, tetanus

    The above text has been printed from The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs by Leslie Taylor, copyrighted © 2005 All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, including websites, without written permission.

    Quoted References for Andiroba

    10. "Carapa guianensis Aubl. Meliaceae. "Andiroba," "Requia," "Brazilian mahogany."
    An excellent wood for carpentry, comparable with the wood from Cedrela odorata and Swietenia macrophylla. The bitter bark infusion is believed febrifuge and vermifuge (SAR), also a tonic. Perhaps useful in herpes (RAR). Infusion used to wash dermatoses and sores (SAR). Seeds yield an oil, with the consistency of lard, used to coat wood to protect it from insects (SOU). Brazilians sell seed oil as antiinflammatory and antiarthritic (RVM). Also used in the soap industry. Fruit oil ingested for cough in Brazil (BDS). The "Wayãpi", the "Palikur", and the "Créoles" use it to remove ticks from their heads, also for Schongastia guianensis, which gets in the skin. Native Americans trust the oil as an emollient and antiinflammatory for skin rash (GMJ)."

    Third-Party Published Research

    All available third-party research on andiroba can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published research on andiroba is shown below:

    Insect Repellant & Insecticidal Actions:
    Vendramini, M., et al. "Action of andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis) on Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) semi-engorged females: Morphophysiological evaluation of reproductive system." Microsc Res Tech. 2012 Dec;75(12):1745-54
    Mac-Mary, S., et al. "Assessment of the Efficacy and Safety of a New Treatment for Head Lice." ISRN Dermatol. 2012; 2012: 460467.
    Vendramini, M., et al. "Cytotoxic effects of andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis) in reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) semi-engorged females." Parasitol Res. 2012 Nov;111(5):1885-94.
    Prophiro, J., et al. "Evaluation of time toxicity, residual effect, and growth-inhibiting property of Carapa guianensis and Copaifera sp. in Aedes aegypti." Parasitol Res. 2012 Feb;110(2):713-9.
    de Souza Chagas, A., et al. "In vitro efficacy of plant extracts and synthesized substances on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) Microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)." Parasitol Res. 2012 Jan;110(1):295-303.
    Porter, L., et al. Insect repellent concentrate formulation U.S. Patent No. 8,206,763. June 26, 2012
    Sarria, A., et al. "Effect of triterpenoids and limonoids isolated from Cabralea canjerana and Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)." Z Naturforsch C. 2011 May-Jun;66(5-6):245-50.
    Maia, M., et al. "Plant-based insect repellents: a review of their efficacy, development and testing" Malar J. 2011; 10(Suppl 1): S11.
    Ribas, J. et al. "[Evaluation of the use of repellent against mosquito bite by military personnel in the Amazon Basin]." An Bras Dermatol. 2010 Jan-Feb;85(1):33-8.
    Roy, A., et al. “Limonoids: overview of significant bioactive triterpenes distributed in plants kingdom. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 29(2): 191-201.
    de Mendonca, F. A., et al. “Activities of some Brazilian plants against larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.” Fitoterapia. 2005 Dec; 76(7-8): 629-36.
    Silva, O. S., et al. “The use of andiroba Carapa guianensis as larvicide against Aedes albopictus.” J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 2004 Dec; 20(4): 456-7.
    Miot, H. A., et al. “Comparative study of the topical effectiveness of the Andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis) and DEET 50% as repellent for Aedes sp.” Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo. 2004 Sep-Oct; 46(5): 253-6.
    Konan, Y. L., et al. “Comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline) on the efficacy of Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in Ivory Coast.” Parasite. 2003 Jun; 10(2): 181-4.
    Sylla, M., et al. “Evaluation of the efficacity of coconut (Cocos nucifera), palm nut (Eleais guineensis) and gobi (Carapa procera) lotions and creams in individual protection against Simulium damnosum S.L. bites in Cote d'Ivoire.” Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 2003 May; 96(2): 104-9.
    Gilbert, B., et al. "Activities of the Pharmaceutical Technology Institute of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation with medicinal, insecticidal and insect repellent plants." An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 1999; 71(2): 265-71.
    Mikolajczak, K. L., et al. “A limonoid antifeedant from seed of Carapa procera.” J. Nat. Prod. 1988; 51(3): 606-10

    Antiparasitic, Anti-malarial & Antiprotozoal Actions:
    Miranda Júnior, R., et al. "Antiplasmodial activity of the andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl., Meliaceae) oil and its limonoid-rich fraction." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Aug 1;142(3):679-83.
    Carvalho, C., et al. "The anthelmintic effect of plant extracts on Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides venezuelensis." Vet Parasitol. 2012 Feb 10;183(3-4):260-8.
    Mesquita, M. L., et al. “Antileishmanial and trypanocidal activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2005 Nov; 100(7): 783-7.
    MacKinnon, S., et al. “Antimalarial activity of tropical Meliaceae extracts and gedunin derivatives.” J. Nat. Prod. 1997; 60(4): 336-41.
    Titanji, J. P., et al. “Novel Onchocerca volvulus filaricides from Carapa procera, Polyathia suaveolens and Pachypodanthium staudtii.” Acta. Leiden. 1990; 59: (1-2) 377-82.

    Anti-Allergic Actions:
    Ferraris, F., et al. "Gedunin, a natural tetranortriterpenoid, modulates T lymphocyte responses and ameliorates allergic inflammation." Int Immunopharmacol. 2012 Sep;14(1):82-93.
    Ferraris, F., et al. "Modulation of T lymphocyte and eosinophil functions in vitro by natural tetranortriterpenoids isolated from Carapa guianensis Aublet." Int Immunopharmacol. 2011 Jan;11(1):1-11.
    Penido, C., et al. “Inhibition of allergen-induced eosinophil recruitment by natural tetranortriterpenoids is mediated by the suppression of IL-5, CCL11/eotaxin and NFkappaB activation.” Int. Immunopharmacol. 2006; 6(2): 109-21.
    Penido, C., et al. “Anti-allergic effects of natural tetranortriterpenoids isolated from Carapa guianensis Aublet on allergen-induced vascular permeability and hyperalgesia.” Inflamm. Res. 2005; 54(7): 295-303.

    Anti-Inflammatory & Pain-Relieving Actions:
    Penido, C., et al. "Antiinflammatory effects of natural tetranortriterpenoids isolated from Carapa guianensis Aublet on zymosan-induced arthritis in mice." Inflamm. Res. 2006; 55(11): 457-64.
    Penido, C., et al. “Anti-allergic effects of natural tetranortriterpenoids isolated from Carapa guianensis Aublet on allergen-induced vascular permeability and hyperalgesia.” Inflamm. Res. 2005; 54(7): 295-303.
    Hammer, M. L., et al. “Tapping an Amazonian plethora: four medicinal plants of Marajó Island, Pará (Brazil).” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993 Sep; 40(1): 53-75.

    Wound Healing Actions:
    Nayak, S., et al. "Experimental Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Carapa guianensis L. Leaf for Its Wound Healing Activity Using Three Wound Models" Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011: 419612.
    Nayak, B., et al. "Investigation of the wound healing activity of Carapa guianensis L. (Meliaceae) bark extract in rats using excision, incision, and dead space wound models." J Med Food. 2010 Oct;13(5):1141-6.
    Nayak, B., et al. "Experimental Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Carapa guianensis L. Leaf for Its Wound Healing Activity Using Three Wound Models." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2009 Oct 13.
    Hammer, M. L., et al. “Tapping an Amazonian plethora: four medicinal plants of Marajó Island, Pará (Brazil).” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993 Sep; 40(1): 53-75.

    Cytotoxic and Anticancerous Actions:
    Moura, M. D., et al. “Natural products reported as potential inhibitors of uterine cervical neoplasia.” Acta. Farm. Bonaerense. 2002; 21(1): 67-74.
    Cohen, E., et al. “Cytotoxicity of nibolide, epoxyazadiradione and other liminoids from neem insecticide.” Life Sci. 1996; 58(13): 1075-81.
    Hammer, M. L., et al. “Tapping an Amazonian plethora: four medicinal plants of Marajó Island, Pará (Brazil).” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993 Sep; 40(1): 53-75.
    Nakanishi, K., et al. “Phytochemical survey of Malaysian plants.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1965; 13(7): 882-890.

    Antimicrobial Actions (bacteria):
    Santos, R., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of Amazonian oils against Paenibacillus species." J Invertebr Pathol. 2012 Mar;109(3):265-8.
    Nakanishi, K., et al. “Phytochemical survey of Malaysian plants.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1965; 13(7): 882-890.

    Toxicity Studies (Non-toxic effects):
    Costa-Silva, J., et al. "Acute and subacute toxicity of the Carapa guianensis Aublet (Meliaceae) seed oil." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Mar 28; 116(3): 495-500.
    Costa-Silva, J., et al. "A toxicological evaluation of the effect of Carapa guianensis Aublet on pregnancy in Wistar rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May 30; 112(1): 122-6.

    Chemical Constituents Identified:
    da Silva, V., et al. Isolation of limonoids from seeds of Carapa guianensis Aublet (Meliaceae) by high-speed countercurrent chromatography." Phytochem. Anal. 2009 Jan; 20(1): 77-81.
    Tappin, M., et al. "Development of an HPLC method for the determination of tetranortriterpenoids in Carapa guianensis seed oil by experimental design." J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2008 Dec 1; 48(4): 1090-5.

    * The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.

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