Agricultural Research Service - ARS

Dr. Duke's
Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Abrus precatorius L. (Fabaceae) -- Coral Beadplant, Crab's Eye, Indian Licorice, Jequerity, Jequirity Bean, Licorice Vine, Love Bean, Lucky Bean, Minnie-Minnies, Prayer Beads, Precatory Bean, Red Beadvine, Rosary Pea, Weatherplant, Weathervine


(+)-ABRINE Plant: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

No activity reported.

No activity reported.

No activity reported.

Analgesic LRN-JUN91 ; Antileukemic ipr mus LRN-JUN91 ; Antitumor M29 ; Cytotoxic DUKE1992B ; Emetic DUKE1992B ; Lectin DUKE1992B ; Mucoirritant M&R379 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Ribosome-Inactivator IC50=0.7-3 ppb POP:207

No activity reported.

No activity reported.

No activity reported.

No activity reported.

No activity reported.

Antiarthritic 120 mg/man orl BOI ; Anticancer BOI ; Anticollegenase BOI ; Antielastase FT66(4):302 ; Antimutagenic EJN238:227 ; Antimyopic 600 mg/man orl AFR27:189 ; Antinyctalopic AFR27:189 ; Antioxidant FT66(4):302 ; Antitumor 120 mg/man orl BOI ; Antiviral PMP23:58 ; Goitrogenic AFR27:188 ; Hemostat JE26:80 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Vasoactive FT66(4):302 ; Vasodilator JAFC48:220

ASH Leaf 17,000 - 81,000 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

CALCIUM Leaf 1,266 - 2,660 ppm DUKE1992A
Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiatherosclerotic WER ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg day WER ; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g day WER ; Antitic DAS ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER

No activity reported.

CARBOHYDRATES Leaf 137,000 - 652,000 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

Antialzheimeran 5-16 g/man/day; Antichoreic DAS ; Anticirrhotic 6,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticystinuric DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PJB1(1):171 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidyskinetic 150-200 mg/kg/man/day MAR ; Antimanic 15-30 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Cholinergic CAN ; Hepatoprotective JN127:893S ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Ileorelaxant FT1990:509 ; Lipotropic JE26:86 ; Parasympathomimetic (1/1,000th acetylcholine) HDN

Antibacterial FT63(1):82 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatic 2-5 mg/man DFN:160 ; Antistaphylococcic FT63(1):82 ; Hypocholesterolemic NR11:S120 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Ubiquiot JBH

Allelochemic IC81=1 mM 438 ; Allergenic M&R581 ; Antioxidant JJS40:138 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Metal-Chelator (Copper) JAC45:3362 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pigment JBH ; Prooxidant JAC45:3362

FAT Seed 28,000 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

FIBER Leaf 37,000 - 176,000 ppm DUKE1992A
Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Laxative DUKE1992B

ACE-Inhibitor IC50=7.7 mM/l; Analgesic FT63(3):195 ; Antiadenovirus EMP5:194 ; Antiallergenic IAA94:262 ; Antianaphylactic JBH ; Antiasthmatic W&B ; Antibacterial MIC=1,000 ug/ml FT65(2):185 ; Antibronchitic IAA94:262 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticarcinomic ED50=3 DUKE1992B ; Antifibrinolytic EMP1:53 ; Antiflu EMP5:194 ; Antihepatotoxic PCF:93 ; Antiherpetic EC50=>10 ug/ml PCF:180 ; AntiHIV PCF:180 ; Antiinflammatory PM58(6):499 ; Antileishmanic EC50=4.4 ug/ml PR15:122 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antinitrosaminic AFR27:217 ; Antioxidant 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC44=33 ppm PCF:218 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=69 uM; Antipolio EMP5:194 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiseptic 411 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=1,000 ug/ml FT65(2):185 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiviral; Apoptotic BO2 ; Astringent 411 ; Bacteristat PR4(5):198 ; Bronchodilator JBH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic DUKE1992B ; Choleretic JBH ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor RWG141 ; Floral-Inhibitor JBH ; Gram(+)icide JE42:95 ; Gram(-)icide JE42:95 ; Hemostat JE26:83 ; Immunomodulator PR15:122 ; Immunostimulant TEA ; Immunosuppressant; Insulin-Sparing JBH ; Myorelaxant JBH ; Nephrotoxic M29(P.779) ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Styptic DUKE1992B ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor BPB20:1017 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=24 uM CPB38:1225

GLYCYRRHIZIN Leaf 100,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Root 12,500 ppm; DUKE1992A
Adrenocorticotropic PJB1(1):176 ; Amphiestrogenic PAM ; Analgesic FT63(3):197 ; AntiAddisonian DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 411 ; Antianaphylactic EMP6:189 ; Antiarthritic EMP102(S-9):65 ; Antiasthmatic 411 ; Antibacterial PAM ; Anticariogenic 411 ; Anticataract PAL:286 ; Anticirrhotic DUKE1992B ; Antidiptheric PAM ; Antidote PAM ; Antiedemic IWU ; Antiestrogenic PAM ; Antigingivitic W&M268 ; Antihepatotic CPB38:212 ; Antihepatotoxic 1,000 ug/ml; Antiherpetic PAM ; AntiHIV 0.6 mM; Antiinflammatory 411 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant 411 ; Antiplaque PAM ; Antiprostaglandin PAL:292 ; Antiradicular PAL:292 ; Antirheumatic DUKE1992B ; Antiseborrheic LRN-JUN89 ; Antiseptic EMP5:212 ; Antistomatitic PJB1(1):176 ; Antitetanic PAM ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer NIG ; Antivaccinic PJB1(1):176 ; Antiviral 8 mM EMP6:189 ; Cancer-Preventive NAH18(9):4 ; Capillariprotective EMP6:189 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Ergogenic 40-80 mg/man/day/shortterm HV2(3):9 ; Estrogenic PAM ; Expectorant JBH ; FLavor FEMA 5-60 ARC ; Hepatoprotective ACM:207 ; Hypertensive DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant; Interferonogenic PAM ; MAO-Inhibitor IC50=160 FPC2:140 IC50=160 uM CPB39:1238 ; Mineral-Corticoid 411 ; Mitogenic; Pancreaprotective DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 100 mg/kg igs mus KHP:227 ; Pseudoaldosteronistic ACM:9 ; Reverse-Transcriptase-Inhibitor PAL:286 ; Sweetener 50 x sucrose 411

Antifeedant JBH ; Convulsant; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Tetanic HDN

KILOCALORIES Leaf 620 - 2,950 /kg DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

No activity reported.

No activity reported.

No activity reported.

Antiatheromic 15 g/man/day HSC25:1485 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic 10 g/man/day/orl; Antidiarrheic M11 ; Antimutagenic PM65:395 ; Antiobesity JNU ; Antitumor (Colon) PM65:395 ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Chemopreventive PM65:395 ; Demulcent DUKE1992B ; Fungicide LAF ; Hemostat DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic HSC25:1485 ; Hypoglycemic JNU ; Peristaltic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

PENTOSANS Seed 92,100 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

PHOSPHORUS Leaf 650 - 3,095 ppm DUKE1992A
Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

No activity reported.

No activity reported.

No activity reported.

No activity reported.

PROTEIN Leaf 56,000 - 267,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 194,000 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

Anticancer (Cervix) 411 ; Anticancer (Liver) 411 ; Antihyperglycemic IWU ; Antimigraine PMP25:56 ; Antiseptic IWU ; Antitumor (Cervix) 411 ; Antitumor (Liver) 411 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic 50 mg/kg orl rat CAN 500-3,000 mg/man/day MAR ; Mutagenic MED97 ; Osmoregulator PC44:1037 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

WATER Leaf 790,000 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.


411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.
525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
ACM:207: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 207.
ACM:9: Jim Duke's personal files
AFR27:188: Jim Duke's personal files
AFR27:189: Jim Duke's personal files
AFR27:217: Jim Duke's personal files
ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.
BO2: Jim Duke's personal files
BOI: Jim Duke's personal files
BPB20:1017: Hamada, S. I., Kataoka, T., Woo, J. T., Yamada, A., Yoshida, T., Nishimura, T., Otake, N., Nagai, K. 1997. Immunosuppressive Effects by Gallic Acid and Chebulagic Acid on CTL-Mediated Cytotoxicity. Biol Pharm Bull, 20: 1017-1019.
CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
CPB38:1225: Hatano, T., Yasuhara, T., Yoshihara, R., Agata, I., Noro, T., and Okuda, T. 1989. Effects of Interaction of Tannins with Co-existing Substances.VII. Inhibitory Effects of Tannins Related Polyphenols on Xanthine Oxidase. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(5): 1224-1229
CPB38:212: Jim Duke's personal files
CPB39:1238: Jim Duke's personal files
DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.
DFN:160: Jim Duke's personal files
DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.
DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.
EJN238:227: Jim Duke's personal files
EMP102(S-9):65: Jim Duke's personal files
EMP1:53: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 53.
EMP5:194: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.
EMP5:212: Jim Duke's personal files
EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.
EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.
FPC2:140: Jim Duke's personal files
FT1990:509: Jim Duke's personal files
FT63(1):82: Jim Duke's personal files
FT63(3):195: Jim Duke's personal files
FT63(3):197: Jim Duke's personal files
FT65(2):185: Jim Duke's personal files
FT66(4):302: Jim Duke's personal files
HDN: Jim Duke's personal files
HSC25:1485: Cerda, J.J. Pectin in Health and Disease. HortScience, 25(12): 1485, 1990.
HV2(3):9: Jim Duke's personal files
IAA94:262: Dorsch, W., Wagner, H. New Antiasthmatic Drugs from Traditional Medicine? Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 94: 262-265, 1991.
IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.
JAC45:3362: Jim Duke's personal files
JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files
JAFC48:220: Jim Duke's personal files
JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
JE26:80: Jim Duke's personal files
JE26:83: Jim Duke's personal files
JE26:86: Jim Duke's personal files
JE42:95: Jim Duke's personal files
JJS40:138: Jap. J. Pharmacology, 40: 138.
JN127:893S: Jim Duke's personal files
JNU: Jim Duke's personal files
KHP:227: Ren, J., Cheng, J. X., Wang, Z. G. 1988. Effects of Ammonium Glycyrrhizinate on the Synthesis of Prostaglandins E2 and F2-alpha. K'o Hsueh T'ung Pao, (3): 227-229.
LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
LRN-JUN89: Jim Duke's personal files
LRN-JUN91: Jim Duke's personal files
M&R379: Jim Duke's personal files
M&R581: Jim Duke's personal files
M11: Merck 11th Edition
M29: Martindale's 29th
M29(P.779): Martindale's 29th, p. 779.
MAR: Martindale's 28th
MED97: Jim Duke's personal files
NAH18(9):4: Jim Duke's personal files
NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
NR11:S120: Jim Duke's personal files
PAL:286: Jim Duke's personal files
PAL:292: Jim Duke's personal files
PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
PC44:1037: Jim Duke's personal files
PCF:180: Jim Duke's personal files
PCF:218: Jim Duke's personal files
PCF:93: Okuda, T., Yoshida, T., and Hatano, T. Antioxidant Effects of Tannins and Related Polyphenols. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.7 p.93.
PJB1(1):171: Jim Duke's personal files
PJB1(1):176: Jim Duke's personal files
PM58(6):499: Kroes, B.H., et al. 1991. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Gallic Acid. Planta Medica, 58(6): 499.
PM65:395: Jim Duke's personal files
PMP23:58: Jim Duke's personal files
PMP25:56: Jim Duke's personal files
POP:207: Jim Duke's personal files
PR15:122: Jim Duke's personal files
PR4(5):198: Lamikanra, A., Ogundaini, A.O., and Ogungbamila*, F.O. Antibacterial Constituents of Alchornea cordifolia Leaves. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 198.
RWG141: Jim Duke's personal files
TEA: McKenna, D. J., Hughes, K., and Jones, K. 2000. Green Tea Monograph. Alternative Therapies, 6(3): 61-82.
W&B: Watt, J.M., and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. 1962.
W&M268: Jim Duke's personal files
WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

Phytochemical Database, USDA - ARS - NGRL, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland
Thu May 16 17:52:39 EDT 2002

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James A. Duke (E-Mail:
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