Bitter Orange - Citrus aurantium Bitter Orange - Citrus aurantium

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Bitter Orange
(Citrus aurantium)

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    • Family: Rutaceae
      Genus: Citrus
      Species: aurantium
      Common Name: Bitter Orange, Ch'Eng, Chin Ch'Iu, Hua Chu Hung, Kuang Chu, Orange Bitters, Naranja Agria, Neroli, Petitgrain
      Part Used:Fruit Peel


    PLANT DESCRIPTION
    Documented Properties
    & Actions:
    Expectorant, Laxative, Carminative, Stomachic, Hypertensive, Nervine
    Plant
    Chemicals
    Include:
    (+)-auraptenal,4-terpineol,5-hydroxyauranetin, acetaldehyde, acetic-acid, alpha-humulene, alpha-ionone, Alpha-phellandrene, Alpha-pinene, alpha-terpineol, Alpha-terpinyl-acetate,alpha-ylangene,ascorbic-acid, Aurantiamene, aurapten, Benzoic -Acid, Beta-copaene, Beta-elemene, Beta-ocimene, Beta-pinene, Butanol, Cadinene, Camphene, Caprinaldehyde, Carvone, Caryophyllene, Cinnamic-acid, Cis-ocimene, Citral, Citronellal, Citronellic-acid ,Citronellol, Cryptoxanthin,d-citronellic-acid, D-limonene, D-linalool,d-nerolidol, Decanal, Decylaldehyde, Decylpelargonate, delta-3-carene, Delta-cadinene, Dipentene, Dl-linalool, Dl-terpineol, Dodecanal, dodecen-2-al-(1), Duodeclyaldehyde, EO, Ethanol, Farnesol ,formic-acid, Furfurol, Gamma-elemene, Gamma-terpinene, Geranic-acid,geraniol, Geranyl-acetate, geranyl-oxide, Hesperidin, hexanol, Indole, Isolimonic-acid, Isoscutellarein, Isosinensetin, Isotetramethylether, L-linalool, L-linalylacetate, L-stachydrine,lauric-aldehyde, Limonene, Limonin, Linalool,linalyl-acetate, Malic-acid, Mannose, Methanol, Myrcene, Naringenin, Naringin, neral, nerol , Nerolidol, neryl-acetate ,Nobiletin, Nomilin, Nonanol, Nonylaldehyde, Nootkatone,octanol, Octyl-acetate, p-cymene, p-cymol, Palmitic- Acid, Pectin, Pelargonic-acid, Pentanol, Phellandrene, Phenol, Phenylacetic- Acid ,Pyrrol ,Pyrrole,rhoifolin, Sabinene, Sinensetin, Stachydrine, Tangeretin, Tannic-acid, Terpenyl-acetate, Terpinen-4-ol ,Terpinolene, Tetra-o-methyl- Scutellarein, Thymol,trans-hexen-2-al-1,trans-ocimene, Umbelliferone, Undecanal, Valencene, Violaxanthin


    Quoted References

    1. "Orange Bitters is loaded with vitamins and minerals. A member of the citrus family, it contains generous amounts of vitamin C; therefore, is good for the treatment of scurvy. It can be beneficial in cases of anemia when Vitamin C is needed to provide the acidic environment necessary for iron absorption. It also helps to clean the blood and has been reported to dissolve kidney stones. The Tikunas, (a Rainforest tribe), like to drink one-half cup of Orange Bitter leaf tea for stomach pains. Other digestive disorders that are treated with Orange Bitters include epigastric or abdominal pains, distention, indigestion, gas and constipation. It has laxative properties."

    2. "Bitter orange has been used as a digestive tonic to help relieve nausea and soothe stomach disturbances such as indigestion, gas and bloating. Research has shown that it is effective in shrinking a distended stomach and lifting a prolapsed womb or rectum. It is an expectorant and laxative. It is considered to be one of the strongest chi moving herbs, with the power to help break up tumors."

    3. "Bitter Orange is a digestive tonic, helps to relieve nausea and soothe stomach disturbance."

    6. "In China, both the ripe and unripe fruit are used medicinally, although the unripe bitter orange (zhi shi) is more potent than ripe (zhi ke). The fruit stimulated the digestion, so can help constipation, move stagnant qi (energy), and make a cooling expectorant for coughs, especially where the phlegm is thick and yellow. It also calms the nerves, so is useful for insomnia and shock. Actions: carminative, digestive stimulant, nervine, increases blood pressure, diuretic, expectorant, energy tonic. CAUTION: Use bitter orange with caution in pregnancy; it can cause contractions."

    9. "Botanical name: Citrus aurantium.
    Pharmaceutical name: Fructus Citri seu Ponciri Immaturus
    Properties: bitter, slightly cold.
    Channels entered: Spleen, Stomach
    Functions and clinical use: Breaks up Stagnant Qi and reduces Accumulations; used for epigastric or abdominal pain and distension or indigestion with Focal Distension or gas. Directs the Qi downward and moves stool: frequently used for abdominal pain and constipation caused by Accumulation and Stagnant Qi. Cautions and contraindications: Use cautiously during pregnancy or in any case where the Normal Qi is weak. Use cautiously in patients with Cold Deficient Stomach.
    Pharmacological and clinical research: Effect on the uterus: decoctions of Fructus Citri seu Ponciri Immaturus (Zhi Shi) from three different provinces (Sichuan, Jiangxi, and Hunan) inhibited uterus specimens from mice and stimulated those from rabbits, as well as stimulating that organ in situ. These findings were the same for both pregnant and nonpregnant animals. An alkaloid-like substance from Fructus Ponciri Trifoliatae (Zhi Shi) has a definite contractile effect on uterus specimens from rabbits, especially when under the contractile influence of oxytocin. When alkaloids were removed from the herb, it produced a relaxing effect on the tissues. Effect on intestines: Fructus Aurantii Immaturus (Zhi Shi) from three different provinces had an inhibitory effect on intestinal specimens and in situ intestines in mice and rabbits. The effect varied with the dosage, and in some cases very small doses (on the order of 1:10,000) showed a transient inhibition followed by an increase in both the intensity and frequency of peristalsis. Cardiovascular effect: small doses of Fructus Aurantii Immaturus (Zhi Shi) have a stimulatory effect on frog heart specimens, while large doses are inhibitory. Intravenous administration of decoctions of this herb to anesthetized dogs leads to a marked rise in blood pressure. It has been noted that there was no reflex drop in blood pressure after the herb had worn off. While the a receptors appeared to be affected, leading to vasoconstriction, there was actually an increase in coronary, brain, and renal blood flow. This may be due in part to the positive inotropic effects leading to an increase in stroke volume. There was a reduction in blood flow through the femoral arteries. Experiments on animals have shown a low incidence of mild supraventricular arrhythmias from intravenous use of this herb. This, in addition to the findings noted above, has led some researchers to conclude that this herb may have some use in treating cardiogenic shock."

    15. [In Belize] "Semi-cultivated for its wide rage of medicinal uses. The leaves, flowers, peel, and juice of the fruit are used in numerous home remedies. Boil 9 leaves in 3 cups of water for 2 minutes; steep 10 minutes and drink 1 cup before each meal for colds, flu, fever, blood clots, diarrhea, infant colic or vomiting (only 1 cup daily), and indigestion."

    21.RUTACEAE
    Rue Family, Citrus Family
    The Rutaceae is distributed in warm and tropical areas of both hemispheres, with its centres of speciation in South Africa and Australia. There are 150 genera and some 900 species which have been divided into four or five subfamilies on characters of the carpels and structure of the fruit. Many of the species have oil glands in the leaves. Commercially, Citrus is the most important genus. Many species are sources of essential oils of use in perfumery and medicine.
    The family is especially rich in secondary metabolites of potential, if not acutal, biodynamic activity. These include ethereal oils, a variety of alkaloids, amides, occasional cyanogenic compounds, several types of coumarins, flavonoids, aromatic acids, polyphenols and tannins, lignans, tetracyclic triterpenes, limonoids, a variety of terpenes as well as saponins. The literature is vast. Reviews of the berbine alkaloids (Kametani, 1976) and degraded triterpenes (Dryer, 1982) have appeared, as well as a general review of the pharmacologically active compounds of the family (Lewis, 1983).
    Citrus Linnaeus
    The 12 or 15 species of Citrus are small, often spiny shrubs and trees of the tropics and subtropics native to Asia and Malaysia. A number of the species are cultivated for their edible fruit: citron, orange, sweet orange, lemon, lime, pomelo, grapefruit, mandarin orange and tangerine. The bergamot orange is valuable in the perfume industry. Aside from the well known chemical contributions of the genus as sources of essential oils, vitamins, pigments, etc., the chemistry is similar to that of the family as a whole. The use of the bioflavonoids in medicine and nutrition (Robbins, 1980) and the chemistry of the flavonoids and limonoids (Maier, 1983) have been reviewed. Additional acridone alkaloids and coumarins have been isolated from C. depressa (Wu, 1983).
    Citrus aurantium Linnaeus, Sp. PI. (1753) 783.
    G 65
    One-half cupful of a leaf decoction is drunk by the Tikunas for treating stomach pains.



    ETHNOBOTANY: WORLDWIDE USES
    China Abdomen, Ache, Antidote, Anodyne, Antiseptic, Bactericide, Bubo, Cancer, Cancer(Breast), Cancer(Stomach), Carminative, Chest, Congestion, Deobstruent, Diarrhea, Dysmenorrhea, Dyspepsia, Dyspnea, Emmenagogue, Freckle, Fungicide, Gas, Prolapse, Nausea, Marasmus, Panacea, Pectoral, Pimple, Rectocele, Refrigerant, Rib, Sedative, Sore, Spasm, Splenitis, Stomach, Stomachic, Thirst, Urogenital, Uterus, Vermifuge, Wine-Nose
    Curacao Gall-Bladder, Hypertension, Nerve, Shampoo, Tea, Tranquilizer
    Elsewhere Ache(Stomach), Antifertility, Carminative, Carminative, Chest, Expectorant, Emmenagogue, Gall-Bladder, Heart, Hemostat, Medicine, Nerve, Spasm, Stimulant, Stomach, Stomachic, Styptic, Sudorific, Tonic
    Haiti Antiseptic, Fever, Laxative, Purgative
    India Ache(Stomach), Hypertension, Liver, Megalospleny, Menorrhagia
    Mexico Ache, Antiseptic, Apertief, Nerve, Tonic, Tranquilizer, Tea
    Trinidad Depurgative, Dyspepsia, Expectorant, Flatulence, Mouthwash, Oliguria, Purgative, Sedative, Sore, Thrush
    Turkey Antiseptic, Aperitif, Narcotic, Nervine, Sedative, Scurvy, Stomachic, Tonic
    US Cancer, Fatality



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