Agricultural Research Service - ARS

Dr. Duke's
Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Paullinia cupana KUNTH ex H.B.K. (Sapindaceae) -- Guarana


Antianemic 1.5 g/day MAR ; Antigranulocytopenic DUKE1992B ; Antiviral JE26:73 ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Hyperuricemic MAR ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Lithogenic ABC50:1317.1986 ; Myocardiotonic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator DUKE1992B

ASH Seed 14,200 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

CAFFEINE Seed 25,000 - 76,000 ppm DUKE1992A
Adenosine-Antagonist TEA ; Analeptic 200 scu mus BBE ; Analgesic-Synergist PJB1(2):263 ; Antiapneic M29 ; Antiapoptotic BOI ; Antiasthmatic 5-10 mg/kg orl/man M29 ; Anticarcinogenic PCF:305 ; Anticariogenic JD23:101 ; Antidermatitic M29 ; Antiemetic 411 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antiflu EMP5:198 ; Antiherpetic EMP5:201 ; Antihypotensive 250 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antinarcotic 411 ; Antiobesity PCF:305 ; Antioxidant PC27:974 ; Antirhinitic 140 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antiserotonergic 40 ipr rat BBE 40 scu rat BBE ; Antitumor PCF:305 ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antivaccinia EMP5:201 ; Antiviral V&D ; Apoptotic BOI ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardiotonic 10-25 orl dog BBE 65-500 orl cat BBE ; Catabolic ABS ; cGMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant 100 orl mus 30 orl rat; Coronary-Dilator TEA ; Diuretic; Energizer 20-200 mg/man JAM272:1043 ; Ergotamine-Enhancer M29 ; FLavor FEMA 125 ARC ; Herbicide 500 ; Hypertensive; Hypoglycemic EMP6:168 ; Insecticide 382 ; Myorelaxant TEA ; Neurotoxic RJH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PJB1(2):263 ; Pyrogenic 13.3 mg/kg ipr rbt EJP45:389 15 mg/kg ipr cat EJP45:389 60 mg/day oral hmn ALG51:189 ; Respirastimulant; Stimulant RJH ; Teratogenic 14 orl rat BBE ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor 0.1 nM JEM168:129 75 uM TCM10:41 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor 99 mM TCM10:41 ; Vasodilator DUKE1992B

No activity reported.

Antialzheimeran 5-16 g/man/day; Antichoreic DAS ; Anticirrhotic 6,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticystinuric DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PJB1(1):171 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidyskinetic 150-200 mg/kg/man/day MAR ; Antimanic 15-30 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Cholinergic CAN ; Hepatoprotective JN127:893S ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Ileorelaxant FT1990:509 ; Lipotropic JE26:86 ; Parasympathomimetic (1/1,000th acetylcholine) HDN

Anticoagulant DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardiotonic DUKE1992B ; Vasoconstrictor AYL

FAT Seed 30,000 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

Essential JBH

No activity reported.

No activity reported.

Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Demulcent PJB1(2):279

PROTEIN Seed 98,600 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

RESIN Seed 70,000 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

No activity reported.

STARCH Seed 50,000 - 60,000 ppm DUKE1992A
Absorbent M29 ; Antidote (Iodine) JBH ; Antinesidioblastosic M29 ; Emollient M29 ; Poultice M29

TANNIN Seed 85,000 - 120,000 ppm DUKE1992A
Anthelminthic JNP59:205 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic CPB38:1049 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Carcinogenic AHP156 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205

THEOBROMINE Seed 330 ppm; DUKE1992A
Anorexic MAR ; Antiasthmatic 10 mg/kg/orl/man M29 ; Arteriodilator DUKE1992B ; Bronchodilator M11 ; cAMP-Inhibitor IC50=0.06 mg/ml PM57:A133 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cardiotonic M11 ; cGMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 300-600 mg/man/day MAR ; Emetic MAR ; Fetotoxic 100 mg/kg 500 ; Herbicide IC41=100 ppm 438 ; Myocardiotonic DUKE1992B ; Myorelaxant JBH ; Myostimulant M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Teratogenic 100 mg/kg 500 ; Vasodilator M11

THEOPHYLLINE Seed 570 ppm; DUKE1992A
Allergenic M29 ; Antiapneic M29 ; Antiasthmatic 5 mg/kg/orl/man M29 ; Antibradyarrhythmic M29 ; Antibronchitic M29 ; Anticellulitic AIL ; Antidote Charcoal & Propanolol M29 ; Antiemphysemic M29 ; Antineuralgic M29 ; Antirhinitic M29 ; Antispasmodic 100 uM JPP42:102 ; Antiviral EMP5:201 ; Arteriodilator DUKE1992B ; Bronchodilator; cAMP-Inhibitor IC50=0.06 mg/ml PM57:A133 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cardiovascular 30 mg/kg orl rat BBE ; cGMP-Inhibitor PAM ; cGMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant JBH ; Diuretic 15 mg/kg ivn rbt BBE ; Fetotoxic 100 mg/kg 500 ; Herbicide IC58=100 ppm 438 ; Hypertensive LAW ; Hyperuricemic M29 ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:168 ; Myocardiotonic M29 ; Myorelaxant 100 uM JPP42:102 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandin-Secretor 10 mg/kg orl rat BBE ; Stimulant DUKE1992B ; Tachycardic M29 ; Teratogenic CRC ; Vasodilator DUKE1992B

No activity reported.

Carcinogenic DUKE1992B


382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.
500: Jim Duke's personal files
525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
ABC50:1317.1986: Jim Duke's personal files
ABS: Abstract (See species file)
AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files
AIL: Jim Duke's personal files
ALG51:189: Daroca, P., Rodriguez, J., Reano, M., Canto, G., Miranda, P. 1996. Fever From Caffeine. Allergy, 51(3): 189-191.
ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.
AYL: Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
BBE: Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.
BOI: Jim Duke's personal files
CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.
CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files
CRC: CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.
DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.
DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.
EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
EJP45:389: Dascombe, M. J. 1977. Effects of Methylxanthine Drugs on Pyrogen-Induced Hyperthermia. Eur J Pharmacol, 45: 389-392.
EMP5:198: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 198.
EMP5:201: Jim Duke's personal files
EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.
EMP6:168: Jim Duke's personal files
FT1990:509: Jim Duke's personal files
HDN: Jim Duke's personal files
HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.
JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files
JAM272:1043: Jim Duke's personal files
JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
JD23:101: Jim Duke's personal files
JE26:73: Jim Duke's personal files
JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files
JE26:86: Jim Duke's personal files
JEM168:129: Tohda, H., Zhao, J. H., Oikawa, A. 1992. A Possible Involvement of DNA Topoisomerase I in "Caffeine Effect" After Ultraviolet Irradiation. Tohoku J Exp Med, 168: 129-132.
JN127:893S: Jim Duke's personal files
JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files
JPP42:102: Jim Duke's personal files
LAW: LAWSON in Koch, H. P. and Lawson, L. D., eds. 1996. Garlic- The Science and therapeutic application of Allium sativum L. and related species. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. 329 pp.
M11: Merck 11th Edition
M29: Martindale's 29th
MAR: Martindale's 28th
NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files
PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
PC27:974: Jim Duke's personal files
PCF:305: Jim Duke's personal files
PJB1(1):171: Jim Duke's personal files
PJB1(2):263: Jim Duke's personal files
PJB1(2):279: Jim Duke's personal files
PM57:A133: Schussler, M., Fricke, U., Nikolov, N., and Holzl, J. 1991. Comparison of the Flavonoids Occurring in Crataegus species and Inhibition of 3',5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Phosphodiesterase. Plant Medica 57: Suppl Issue 2. p.A-133.
RJH: R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.
RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files
TCM10:41: Shin, C. G., Strayer, J. M., Wani, M., Snapka, R. M. 1990. Rapid Evaluation of Topoisomerase Inhibitors: Caffeine Inhibition of Topoisomerases in vivo. Teratogen Carcinogen Mutagen, 10: 41-52.
TEA: McKenna, D. J., Hughes, K., and Jones, K. 2000. Green Tea Monograph. Alternative Therapies, 6(3): 61-82.
V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

Phytochemical Database, USDA - ARS - NGRL, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland
Thu May 16 16:31:46 EDT 2002

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